1. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle I.
1. Mechanical excavators may be adapted for use as cranes using a long jib of steel - lattice construction.
2. Mobile cranes usually take the form of a frame carrying a jib, a winch and other necessary hoisting and controlling equipment.
3. It was a shovel combining lightness and strength.
2. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод Participle II.
1. Properly applied the excavators carry out the work rapidly and at low cost.
2. The plant consists of a base frame mounted on crawler tracks, with a revolving platform positioned on top of the frame.
3. Mounted on crawler tracks this excavator can be used under very adverse site conditions.
3. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на перевод независимого причастного оборота.
1. The amount of the current passing through the motor windings determines the torque, the voltage determining the speed of rotation.
2. The machine being operated automatically, its output increased.
3. Backactor equipment is in effect shovel equipment functioning in reverse, the bucket performing the excavator backwards towards the plant.
4. Перепишите и переведите текст по специальности:
The gasoline engine operates on a four-stroke cycle in most cars. On the intake stroke, the piston moves down the cylinder and draws in a fuel-air mixture as the intake valve opens. The valve then closes, and the piston moves back up the cylinder on the compression stroke, squeezing the fuel-air mixture.
At the top of the stroke, the spark plug ignites the compressed mixture. The burning causes the gases to expand, forcing the piston down in the power stroke. On the exhaust stroke, the piston moves up again and pushes the burning gases out the open exhaust valve. The exhaust valve then closes, the intake valve opens and the cycle starts again.
During the power stroke, the connecting rod transfers energy from the piston to the crankshaft, which then transmits the energy to the transmission. For a car’s wheel to turn, the up-and-down movement of the pistons must be converted to rotary motion. The connecting rod and crankshaft do the job. The connecting rod turns the pistons’ up-and-down motions into the crankshaft’s rotary motion.
Highly advanced devices regulate modern engines. An electronic control unit receives data regarding engine speed, air pressure and temperature, and other factors. The unit uses the data to regulate the timing of the ignition sparks and the fuel flow. It adjusts the engine hundreds of times a minute.