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Crime (перевод)

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Загружен: 16.11.2016
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Crime
A crime is understood as a socially dangerous act (or omission) directed against the social and state system, the system of economy, property and other rights of citizens or any other act infringing law and order which is defined in criminal legislation as dangerous to society. Criminal legislation states that there can be no criminal responsibility where the nature of the act is not socially dangerous. In consequence, criminal law does not regard as a crime an act or omission which, even if formally containing features of some act covered by criminal law, does not constitute a danger to society on account of its triviality.
Each crime consists of a number of individual elements. Those elements characterize the purpose of a criminal act, the form and method of an action, the character of a criminal act and so forth. The total sum of elements defining a specific crime comprises what is known as the corpus delicti of a crime. The corpus delicti in any act is grounds for establishing criminal responsibility against the offender. A person may not be considered guilty of having committed a crime unless several elements of corpus delicti of that crime have been established in his acts. In the absence of any element of corpus delicti in the acts of the accused, criminal proceedings may not be instituted, and if instituted, may not be continued, and must be stopped at any stage. In pronouncing its sentence the court must above all answer these questions: a) did the act ascribed to the accused actually take place? b) does it contain corpus delicti? c) was the act performed by the accused? The object of a crime is, under criminal law, social relations guarded by criminal legislation. This means that all crimes prescribed by the Criminal Code are ultimately aimed against the social relations taking shape and developing in society. However, each crime has an immediate object. Thus, murder has its immediate object - human life, theft - state, collective or personal property; rowdyism (hooliganism) - public law and order, etc.
A crime may be committed by an act, i.e. the active behaviour of a person, or persons, or by an omission, i.e. the non-performance of acts which it was his duty to perform (such as failure to use authority).
The subject of a crime is a person who commits the crime and is responsible for it. Only persons who have attained a certain age and are compos mentis can be the subject of a crime. Persons who have the age of 16 before the commission of a crime are criminally responsible; for some crimes (murder, deliberate infliction of bodily injury impairing health, brigandage, stealing, robbery, hooliganism with evil intent, etc.) the age is 14 years.
Actually, the age limit for some crimes (committed by persons in office in their official capacity, military crimes, etc.) is considerably higher.
A person who, at the time of the commission of a socially dangerous act, is non-compos mentis, i.e. is unable to account for his actions or to govern them in consequence of chronic mental disease, temporary mental derangement, weak-mindedness or some other morbid state, is not criminally responsible. Compulsory medical treatment as established by the criminal legislation of the state (placing in a general or special mental hospital) may be applied to such a person by a court order.
A person who, at the time of the commission of a crime, is compos mentis but, before a sentence is passed by the court, is affected by mental derangement, is not liable to punishment. By an order of the court compulsory medical treatment may be applied to such a person and on recovery from his illness he may be liable to punishment. A person committing a crime while in a state of drunkenness is not relieved of criminal responsibility.

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