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Английский, вар 1 (THE ESSENTIAL TRIANGLE)

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Text 1
1. Read the text about main professions in engineering. Decide whether the sentences are true (T) or false (F). If the sentence is false, write the correct sentence.
1. The engineer, the scientist, the technologist do not depend on each other in making technological progress.
2. The pure scientist makes contribution to progress investigating the unknown.
3. Scientists work in the real world of specific things and concrete objects.
4. The technologist works in a world of generalizations and abstractions.
5. The engineer asks «why»? «How»? questions like the technologist athe nd research engineer.
6. The engineer must combine characteristics of the scientist, research engineer and technologist.
7. The principal work of the engineer is research.
8. The most important function of the engineer is to integrate the work of the essential triangle.
9. The technologist works in the world of abstract solutions.
10. The problems of the technologist are practical and require practical solutions.

Technological and industrial progress depends on the scientist, the engineer and the technologist – an essential triangle. Each makes major contribution to progress. The engineer depends upon the scientist for new knowledge and upon the technologist for specialized assistance in translating engineering plans into operating reality.
The pure scientist can make his contribution to progress through the investigation of the unknown.
The interests of the research engineer are in the area of applied science and research. Scientists work in a world of generalizations and abstractions. The technologist on the other hand, works in the real world of specific things and concrete objects. His problems are practical and they require practical solutions. He is more interested in how to do things. He must understand engineering tables and formulas and apply them in his work. The scientist, the research engineer, the technologist – all play an important role in the modern world.
The principal work of the engineer is design. He has to design products, machines and production systems. Like the research engineer, the engineer asks «why»? Like the technologist, he is also concerned with «how»?
The engineer must combine many of the characteristics of the scientist, re- search engineer and technologist. He must have a basic knowledge of the sciences, and understanding of the abstract techniques of the research engineer and he should know much of the technology employed by technologists.
Perhaps the most important function of the engineer is to integrate the work of the essential triangle. His interest must be in combining the abstract- theoretical world and the technical-practical world.

Text 2
2. Read the text about metals. Choose the best word (A, B or C) for each space (1–10).
Metals are materials most widely used in industry because of their 1) ________. The study of the production of metals is known as 2) _______.
The 3) ____________ between the atoms in metals is small, so most metals are 4) ________. The atoms are arranged 5) _______ and can 6) ______over each other. That is why metals are 7) ________. Metals vary greatly in their properties. For example, lead is soft and can be bent by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat.
The regular arrangement of atoms in metals gives them a crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called 8) _____. The properties of the metals de- pend on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of these grains. In general, a metal with small grains will be harder and stronger than one with coarse grains.
Small amounts of other metals (less than 1 per cent) are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (легирование) and it changes the grain structure and properties of metals.....

Дополнительная информация

1)a) propertiesb) featuresc) characters
2)a) strength of materialsb) metallurgyc) engineering mechanics
3)a) breakb) crustc) separation
4)a) fatb) densec) hard
5)a) regularlyb) orderlyc) neat
6)a) gob) walkc) slide
7)a) malleableb) fragilec) soft
8)a) cornsb) matterc) grains
9)a) meltedb) drawnc) boiled

3. A Find in the text 1 the nouns derived from the following verbs.
1. to know
2. to contribute
3. to assist
4. to investigate
5. to generalize

B. Find in the text 1 the verbs derived from the following nouns.
1. integration
2. combination
3. requirement

C. Give English equivalents to the following expressions.
1. найти новое применение
2. создать новую продукцию
3. модернизировать продукцию
4. профилактический уход (ремонт)
5. необходимый ремонт

D. Answer the questions choosing the right variants.
1) What are metals?
a) materials
b) properties
c) particles

2) Why are metals malleable? Because
a) metals are varied greatly
b) atoms are arranged regularly
c) metals can be deformed

3) What are grains?
a) regular arrangement
b) regular crystals
c) irregular crystals

4) What’s alloying?
a) study of metal properties
b) adding other metals to a pure metal
c) working of a metal

5) What do the properties of metals depend on?
a) arrangement of atoms
b) amount of other metals
c) size, shape & composition

6) What are the main processes of metal forming?
a) rolling & hammering
b) arranging & alloying
c) melting

7) Why most metals are dense?
a) because the atoms can slide over each other
b) because the atoms are arranged regularly
c) because the separation between the atoms is small

8) The cristaline structure is...
a) the regular arrangement of atoms b) ability to be mauleable
c) abitlity to be ductile

9) Alloying is ...
a) mixing different materials together
b) adding plastics to the metal
c) adding small amounts of other metals (less than 1 %) to pure metal

10) The way of working a metal depends on ...
a) the cristaline structure of the metal
b) properties of metals
c) size of the metals

4. Translate the following sentences from English into Russian and from Russian into English.
1. Designers work to create new products.
2. To create new products is the task of the design engineer.
3. Their aim is to introduce new components and materials.
4. Engineers introduce new materials to make the product cheaper.
5. Design department consult with production engineers to ensure that innovations are practicable.
6. Design engineers extend the life of old products by updating them.
7. Finding new applications of old products is one of the main tasks.
8. Металлы – плотные материалы, потому что между атомами в металлах малое расстояние.
9. Металлы имеют кристаллическую структуру из-за правильного расположения атомов.
10. Чем меньше зерна, тем тверже металл.

5. Write an abstract of the text below.
But what are semiconductors? They include almost all minerals, many chemical elements, a great variety of chemical compounds, alloys of metals, and a number of organic compounds. Like metals, they conduct electricity but they do it less effectively. In metals all electrons are free and in insulators they are fixed. In semiconductors electrons are fixed, too, but the connection is so weak that the thermal motion of the atoms of a body easily pulls them away1 and sets them free.
It is not difficult to understand that the term «semiconductor» has been used because the material in question really occupies a place between the conductors of the electric current and the non-conductors, which is an insulator. The term shows that they conduct electricity less readily than conductors but much better than insulators.


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