INDIVIDUAL HOME TASK № 1
1. Read the text about main professions in engineering. Decide whether the sentences are true (T) or false (F). If the sentence is false, write the correct sentence.
1. The engineer, the scientist, the technologist do not depend on each other in making technological progress.
2. The pure scientist makes contribution to progress investigating the unknown.
3. Scientists work in the real world of specific things and concrete objects.
4. The technologist works in a world of generalizations and abstractions.
5. The engineer asks «why»? «How»? questions like the technologist athe nd research engineer.
6. The engineer must combine characteristics of the scientist, research engineer and technologist.
7. The principal work of the engineer is research.
8. The most important function of the engineer is to integrate the work of the essential triangle.
9. The technologist works in the world of abstract solutions.
10. The problems of the technologist are practical and require practical solutions.
THE ESSENTIAL TRIANGLE
Technological and industrial progress depends on the scientist, the engineer and the technologist – an essential triangle. Each makes major contribution to progress. The engineer depends upon the scientist for new knowledge and upon the technologist for specialized assistance in translating engineering plans into operating reality.
The pure scientist can make his contribution to progress through the investigation of the unknown.
The interests of the research engineer are in the area of applied science and research. Scientists work in a world of generalizations and abstractions. The technologist on the other hand, works in the real world of specific things and concrete objects. His problems are practical and they require practical solutions. He is more interested in how to do things. He must understand engineering tables and formulas and apply them in his work. The scientist, the research engineer, the technologist – all play an important role in the modern world.
The principal work of the engineer is design. He has to design products, machines and production systems. Like the research engineer, the engineer asks «why»? Like the technologist, he is also concerned with «how»?
The engineer must combine many of the characteristics of the scientist, re- search engineer and technologist. He must have a basic knowledge of the sciences, and understanding of the abstract techniques of the research engineer and he should know much of the technology employed by technologists.
Perhaps the most important function of the engineer is to integrate the work of the essential triangle. His interest must be in combining the abstract- theoretical world and the technical-practical world.
2. Read the text about metals. Choose the best word (A, B or C) for each space (1–10).
Metals are materials most widely used in industry because of their 1) ________. The study of the production of metals is known as 2) _______.
The 3) ____________ between the atoms in metals is small, so most metals are 4) ________. The atoms are arranged 5) _______ and can 6) ______over each other. That is why metals are 7) ________. Metals vary greatly in their properties. For example, lead is soft and can be bent by hand, while iron can only be worked by hammering at red heat.
The regular arrangement of atoms in metals gives them a crystalline structure. Irregular crystals are called 8) _____. The properties of the metals de- pend on the size, shape, orientation, and composition of these grains. In general, a metal with small grains will be harder and stronger than one with coarse grains.
Small amounts of other metals (less than 1 per cent) are often added to a pure metal. This is called alloying (легирование) and it changes the grain structure and properties of metals.....