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Англ, вар 2 (Factors of Production: Natural Resources)

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Загружен: 19.10.2016
Содержимое: вар 2 (Factors of Production Natural Resources and Land).rar (33,41 Кбайт)

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ВАРИАНТ II.
ЗАДАНИЕ 1. Определите в каждом предложении видовременную форму и залог глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения.
1. I haven´t been on holiday this year.
2. Yesterday an important contract was signed.
3. I shall have finished this work by 7 o´clock.
4. Books are not sold here, only newspapers and magazines.
5. The customer had seen the new equipment at the factory before he ordered it from us.
6. We shall be learning a foreign language when you come to see us.
7. She has already typed the letter.

ЗАДАНИЕ 2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на согласование времен.
1. The cable said the Customer would place a large order for our equipment.
2. I´m sure he will speak English fluently in two years.
3. He asked us if we knew his address.
4. All of us knew that she had studied English at school.

ЗАДАНИЕ 3. Определите функции глагола TO BE, TO DO и TO HAVE. Переведите предложения.
1. Students will have vacation in summer.
2. The letter was written yesterday.
3. He had to take part in our discussion.
4. Machines now do most of the hard work instead of men.
5. He was at the Institute in the morning.

ЗАДАНИЕ 4. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на причастия I и II и причастные обороты
1. Being asked about his life, he told us a great many interes¬ting things.
2. While translating difficult texts we use a dictionary.
3. There being nobody at home, I had dinner alone.
4. He coming very late, we had to stay at home.
5. Having read the book I returned it to the library.

ЗАДАНИЕ 5. Определите формы инфинитива:
TO DESIGN, TO BE DESIGNED, TO HAVE DESIGNED, TO HAVE BEEN DESIGNED, TO BE DESIGNING

ЗАДАНИЕ 6. Определите функции инфинитива и переведите предложения.
1. To solve this problem is extremely difficult.
2. The article to be translated is rather difficult.
3. Popov was the first to invent radio.
4. He is glad to have begun working at this problem.
5. We knew him to be a good economist.

ЗАДАНИЕ 7. Переведите на русский язык, определив функцию герундия.
1. He likes listening to music.
2. They left without talking to him.
3. Smoking is not allowed here.
4. His favorite pastime is watching TV.
5. We thought of reading this article as soon as possible.
6. Mastering a foreign language thoroughly is not easy.

Задание 8. Переведите текст.
Factors of Production: Natural Resources and Land
Economists consider natural resources to be the third factor of produc-tion. They are a contribution to productive activity made by land (for exam¬ple, a factory site or farm location), raw materials such as iron ore, timber, oil, water for crops and power production, forests and animals.
Some natural resources, wheat, for example, are renewable, others such as iron ore are non-renewable and will sooner or later be used up. Economists know reduced supplies of non-renewable resources to result in their higher prices, which provide an incentive to look for natural or synthetic substitutes for them.
The supply of land, an essential natural resource, is limited and it cannot be easily increased to meet an increase in demand except in certain cases. For example, the Dutch have been able to reclaim from the sea some areas of low-lying land.
Another essential characteristic of land is that it is durable, that is, land is not used up in the production process, although it may be depleted by use.
Land is, in some respects1, close to physical capital, though the former is supplied by nature and the latter is produced by man. But applying labour to ill weeds or fertilizer to improve the soil, farmers can "produce" better land and raise its price.
Price of or income from land, as well as from other natural resources, is called rent. Land itself has no cost of production, so rent depends on the degree of scarcity and on the demand for it.
The purposes for which land is used are due to its characteristics. Land can be used for housing or offices, for mining, or for building road

Дополнительная информация

The purposes for which land is used are due to its characteristics. Land can be used for housing or offices, for mining, or for building roads. Besides, it contributes to the production of crops, providing an environment that sup¬plies water, air, and nutrients for plant growth.
Land as a unique agricultural resource poses management problems for the farmer. In the first place2, the farmer has to make a choice between buy¬ing and leasing it. The advantages and disadvantages depend on the farmer´s financial position, on the availability of land for lease and purchase and some other factors.
Because purchasing land usually requires a larger capital, farmers with limited capital lease land and use their capital for machinery and other re-sources.
Economists consider a satisfactory lease to be the one that is profitable both for the landowner and the tenant. A fair lease compensates both parties in proportion to their contributions to the farm business.
Other management problems may arise due to differences in land profit-ability in various farming branches and other industries. Economists know different crops and classes of animals to vary in profitability. The farmer has to study thoroughly the conditions on his farm to make a correct choice be-tween alternative uses.
Although the total supply of land is limited, its allocation between indus-tries is not. If a government wants to stimulate, for example, either housing or forestation, it offers a subsidy raising the rent received by owners of housing land or forests. This may create incentives for farmers to transfer land from farming to other industries.
Пояснения к тексту
in some respects — в некоторых отношениях, in the first place — прежде всего

а) Расположите вопросы к тексту в таком порядке, чтобы они могли служить планом текста и ответьте на них.
Why is land transferred from one industry to another? Why is land an essential agricultural resource? When do farmers buy land and when do they lease it? What natural resources are named in the text? Can the supply of land be increased? When do prices for non-renewable resources rise? How can a farmer raise the price of land? Why do farmers have to choose between alternative uses of land on their farms? Why is land durable? For what purposes is land used?
б) Подумайте и скажите:
1. What other renewable and non-renewable resources besides the ones mentioned in the text can you name?
2. What advantages and disadvantages of land lease for a farmer can you think of?

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