Контрольная №3 по англ (Money and its functions)
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Контрольная работа № 3
1. Прочитайте текст, переведите письменно 2, 4 и 5 абзацы.
Money and its functions
Money is any object or record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given country or socio-economic context. The exchange of goods and services in markets is among the most universal activities of human life. To facilitate these exchanges, people settle on something that will serve as a medium of exchange—they select something to be money.
However, this has not always been true. In primitive societies a system of barter was used. Barter was a system of direct exchange of goods. Somebody could exchange a sheep, for example, for anything in the market place that they considered to be of equal value. Barter, however, was a very unsatisfactory system because people’s precise needs seldom coincided. People needed a more practical system of exchange, and various money systems developed based on goods which the members of a society recognized as having value. Cattle, grain, teeth, shells, feather, salt, tobacco have been used. Precious metals gradually took over because, when made into coins, they were portable, durable, recognizable and divisible into larger and smaller units of value.
The main functions of money are distinguished as: a medium of exchange; a unit of account; a store of value; and, occasionally in the past, a standard of deferred payment. When money is used to intermediate the exchange of goods and services, it is performing a function as a medium of exchange. It thereby avoids the inefficiencies of a barter system, such as the ‘double coincidence of wants’ problem.
Money also serves as a unit of account. A unit of account is a standard numerical unit of measurement of the market value of goods, services, and other transactions. Also known as a “measure” or “standard” of relative worth and deferred payment, a unit of account is a necessary prerequisite for the formulation of commercial agreements that involve debt.
The third function of money is to serve as a store of value, that is, an item that holds value over time. To act as a store of value, money must be able to be reliably saved, stored, and retrieved – and be predictably usable as a medium of exchange when it is retrieved. The value of the money must also remain stable over time. Money, of course, is not the only thing that stores value. Houses, office buildings, land, works of art, and many other commodities are regarded as a means of storing wealth and value. Money differs from these other stores of value as it is readily exchangeable for other commodities. ...
Because money acts as a store of value, it can be used as a standard for future payments. When you borrow money, for example, you typically sign a contract pledging to make a series of future payments to settle the debt. These payments will be made using money, because money acts as a store of value.
The money supply of a country consists of currency (banknotes and coins) and usually includes bank money (the balance held in checking accounts and savings accounts). Bank money, which consists only of records (mostly computerized in modern banking), forms by far the largest part of broad money in developed countries.
2. Определите, к каким частям речи относятся данные слова. Распределите их в таблице.
Settle, generally, true, medium, borrow, prerequisite, commercial, coin, serve, portable, gradually, debt, consist, unsatisfactory, reliably, payment, precious, currency, involve, broad, cattle, commodity.
Noun verb adjective adverb
3. Переведите письменно данные слова и выражения из текста.
Товары и услуги; средство обмена; платеж; система бартера; коммерческое соглашение; расчетная единица; ценность, стоимость; платежи; урегулировать долг; средство накопления богатства; сберегательный счет; валюта; рыночная стоимость; денежная масса; отложенный платеж; подписать контракт
4. Перепишите предложения, заполняя пропуски словами из упражнения III.
1. She opened a … … in the bank to save her money.
2. The credit card company has just increased the penalty on late …
3. Oil is traditionally paid for in the US …
4. There still exist some aboriginal tribes which use the … … when trading.
5. Russia exports such agricultural … as rye and wheat.
6. Dear ladies and gentlemen! We are here today to … an agreement of cooperation.
7. The entire business … took place over the phone.
5. Письменно ответьте на вопросы по тексту.
1. What definition of money is given in the text?
2. Why is the system of barter considered to be unsatisfactory?
3. What functions of money are mentioned in the text?
4. What is a unit of account?
5. What does the money supply of a country consist of?
6. Найдите предложения, в которых сказуемое используется в пассивном залоге. Выпишите такие сказуемые. Напишите их форму (время и залог).
7. Перепишите предложения, переведите их письменно, подчеркните сказуемое и укажите его форму.
1. The scientists were offered new themes for research last month.
2. She is highly paid.
3. Candidates will be allowed television time.
4. This lector is being attentively listened to by students at the moment.
5. This recent conference has been initiated by the USA.
6. The report had been already made before she entered the hall.
7. The bridge will have been built by 2020.
8. The sales of the company are increased regularly.
8. Перепишите предложения, используя сказуемое в пассивном залоге.
1. Adam Smith wrote “The wealth of nations” in 1776.
2. The Prime Minister will head the delegation.
3. She had read the whole book when we came.
4. The workers are testing a new machine right now.
5. She asked me to wait for her.
6. The scientists were carrying out the experiment from 10 to 12 o`clock yesterday.
7. A lot of people speak much about this new film.
8. He has finished his work.
9. Задайте вопрос, используя сказуемое в пассивном залоге.
1. Children are not allowed for this film. (Who?)
2. The work will have been done when she comes. (When?)
3. The text is being translated at the moment. (What?)
4. The protocol has been signed at the conference. (Where?)
5. The seminar will be held in May. (When?)
10. Перепишите текст, выбирая правильный вариант (активный или пассивный залог сказуемого). Переведите его.
The World Wide Web and the Internet brought/were brought many benefits that are extending/ are being extended the marketing and communication techniques. The Internet was developed/ developed as APRANET by the specialists in computer programming in the 1970s. First it was made/made available only to high-ranking academics and to educational establishments. Since then the Internet technology has been commercialized/has commercialized by large corporations and continues to be used/use for marketing and commerce. Customers can buy/be bought different goods through e-commerce and services are provided/provide instantaneously. Small enterprises have benefited/have been benefited because the Internet gives/is given them global reach to the international markets.
11. Перепишите предложения, переведите их письменно, подчеркните в них модальный глагол.
1. The employees of this company must not be late for work.
2. She can type 30 words per minute.
3. If the market becomes too saturated demand may drop off.
4. It was not enough just to make the product, they also had to sell it and get paid for it.
5. The company can`t give details of the contract because the information is confidential.
12. Перепишите предложения, выбирая правильный модальный глагол.
1. Nobody could/might translate this text as they didn`t have dictionaries.
2. Who can/had to answer my question?
3. Must/Can I wear a uniform at work? – No, you needn`t.
4. You must/may use your mobile phones ...
8. She should/may visit her grand
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