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I. Переведите письменно существительные (1 - 10).

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I. Переведите письменно существительные (1 - 10).
Выберите определения (a – j), соответствующие существительным.
1) offer a) a company or business, especially one which is quite small
2) firm b) an amount of money paid to a professional person or organization for their services
3) purchase с) money that one person, organization, country etc owes to another
4) refund d) a statement that you are willing to give someone something or do something for them
5) fee e) the act of buying something
6) loan f) money borrowed from a bank, person etc
7) debt g) a sum of money that is given back to you
8) corporation h) a person, team, company that is competing with another
9) costs i) a large company or group of companies acting together as a single organization
10) competitor j) the money that a business or an individual must regularly spend
II. В следующих предложениях подчеркните определения, выраженные именем существительным, и переведите эти предложения на русский язык.
1. Exchange rates are determined by supply and demand.
2. Only about 5% of the world’s currency transactions are related to trade.
3. The stock price will immediately rise.
III. a) Выполните темы № 2, 4 в КОПР.
b) В следующих предложениях подчеркните глагол-сказуемое, определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
IV. В следующих предложениях подчеркните модальный глагол или его эквивалент. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Delays in construction could increase costs significantly.
2. The carrier may exercise a lien on the cargo for the unpaid freight.
3. Managers have to measure the performance of their staff.
V. В следующих предложениях подчеркните Participle 1 и Participle 2. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

1. Workers have to be closely supervised (Participle 2) and controlled (Participle 2), and told what to do.
2. The electricity bill may be paid (Participle 2) in cash or by cheque.
3. The price of shares has risen (Participle 1) heavily today.
VI. Прочитайте и устно переведите на русский язык весь текст. Перепишите и письменно переведите абзацы 2, 3.

Advertising

1. Advertising informs consumers about the existence and benefits of products and services, and persuades to buy them. Most companies use advertising agencies to produce their advertising. They give the agency a statement of the objectives of the advertising campaign and a budget. The agency creates advertisements (or ads), and develops a media plan specifying which media – newspapers, magazines, the Internet, radio, television, cinema, posters, mail, etc. – will be used and in which proportions.
2. It is always difficult to know how much to spend on advertising. Increased ad spending can increase sales, but many companies just spend a fixed percentage of current sales revenue, or simply spend as much as their competitors. On the other hand, lots of creative and expensive advertising campaigns, including television commercials that lots of people see and remember, and which win prizes awarded by the advertising industry for the best ads, don’t lead to increased sales.
3. Advertising is considered to be important for launching new consumer products. Combined with sales promotions such as free samples, price reductions and competitions, advertising may generate the initial trial of a new product. But traditional advertising is expensive, it doesn’t always reach the target customers. This is why the best form of advertising has always been word-of-mouth advertising: people telling their friends about good products and services.
VII. Определите, являются ли приведенные ниже утверждения (1, 2, 3):
a) истинными (true)
b) ложными (false)
c) в тексте нет информации (no information)
VIII. Прочитайте абзац 1 (см. задание VI) и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:

What do most companies give to advertising agencies?

Дополнительная информация

Text 8
THE LONDON STOCK EXCHANGE
London, the capital of the United Kingdom, is a political, cultural, commercial, industrial and financial centre of the country. At the same time London is one of the world’s financial capitals. The business centre of London is the City, where numerous banks, various exchanges, insurance offices, shipping and other companies have their head offices.
At the heart of the City is the London Stock Exchange where millions of shares and securities are traded daily. There are also exchanges in several other cities of the United Kingdom but the London Stock Exchange is the most important. Here through the Exchange members the investor can buy or sell shares in any of the thousands of companies which are quoted on the Exchange and many more companies which are quoted on recognized exchanges overseas. The London Stock Exchange offers the largest range and number of securities quoted on any Stock Exchange in the world. In volume of business it ranks third to New York and Tokyo.
London is also the headquarters of many prominent international banking and insurance concerns which deal in foreign shares, insurance and bonds and handle
Text 9
HOW BUSINESSES ARE AFFECTED BY COMPETITION
Some markets are highly competitive, while others are a lot less so. A good example of a competitive market in which there are many buyers and sellers is that of Internet booksellers. Because there are so many firms selling identical products then the price of these books will be highly similar. This competition helps to drive down the profit that such firms can make.
Competition occurs when two or more organisations act independently to supply their products to the same group of consumers. There is direct and indirect competition.Direct competition exists where organisations produce similar products that appeal to the same group of consumers. For example when two supermarkets offer the same range of chocolate bars for sale.
Indirect competition exists when different firms make or sell items which although not in head to head competition still compete for the same . in the customers pocket. For example, a High Street shop selling CD’s may be competing with a cinema that is also trying to entice young shoppers to spend money on leisure activities.
Businesses are strongly affected by competition: first of all the price they charge is limited by the extent of the competition, and second the range of services and the nature of the product they sell is influenced by the level of competition. For example, a business selling an inferior product to that of a rival will struggle to make sales unless they cut their prices.

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