Read and translate the text in writing.
TRAINING OF JOURNALISTS
There are two main stages of training journalists in the United Kingdom - for the beginners and for the experienced senior1. The training can be based within the newspaper itself2 or upon a university or college.
These stages give very positive effect. The university training, or the general education gives the future journalist the necessary background3 for his profession. It includes the study over three years of shorthand, typewriting, English language and literature, the organization and functions of central and local government, law, sometimes musical theory, the history of art, etc.
The newspaper training is built around the newspaper in which a journalist is employed. The training is held under the supervision4 of the editor. Such education is partly at the employer's expense5 and in his time.
Journalism in Russia dates back to the first handwritten Russian newspapers. They were called Vesti (News) and Vedomosti (Information). The earliest newspapers date back to 1621. The first printed Russian newspaper appeared in 1702. The great expansion of the press, broadcasting and television has intensified the demand for skilled journalists.
Professional training for journalists is a recent innovation in this country. The Moscow Institute of Journalism was established in 1921. After that the departments of journalism were created at some Universities, and special schools and courses were organized.
After the Second World War, some departments of journalism were established at Universities on the basis of the Faculties of Philology. The largest centre for the training of journalists is the Faculty of journalism at the Lomonosov University in Moscow.
1). Put the sentences of infinitive constructions.
1. It is not difficult for sports fans to find sports publications. 2. We think him to be a good journalist. 3. I should like the student to learn the practical principles of book editing. 4. He seems to be satisfied with the results of his work.
5. It is necessary for a journalist to have a wide acquaintance with men and affairs. 6. He is said to work in London as a reporter.7. We believe him to be a talented photographer. 8. The delegation is reported to have arrived in New York.
2). Put the sentences containing the design involved:
1. All preparations being made the conference began. 2. The student was seen entering the laboratory. 3. I saw him translating the text. 3. We heard the reporter broadcasting the news. 4 The speech being ready we went to the conference-hall. 5. They were seen engraving the photographs.
3). Open brackets, using a correct form of the verb in subordinate conditional sentences.
1. Never would bring you this magazine if you (to ask) him.
2. Everybody would have understood him if he (to speak) English.
3. You could have bought a ticket if you (to come) to the station earlier.
4. If it not (to be) so late I'll phone him.
5. You would understand the main idea if you (to read) the issue carefully.
6. If it not (to be) so expensive I'll buy this magazine.
7. The student would not have written his course-paper in time if he not (to borrow) the books from the library.
8. You could have seen this picture if you (to visit) this exhibition last week.
4). Open brackets, using a verb in the correct form vidovremennyh:
1. While I (to read) the article I learned that the BBC radio provided a nation-wide broadcasting in Britain. 2. A number of periodicals (to publish) in foreign languages. 3. The editor said that the newspaper (to carry) that information in the previous issue. 4. Readers' letters (to be) a valuable source of information about life, about people's interests and needs. 5. Where is Ann? She (to interview) a famous writer. 6.