(6) Evaluation is the fourth stage of policy-making process.It is very important because the knowledge gained from it helps to identify problems that arise out of current policy. Evaluation studies provide the feedback to policymakers on programme performance.Policy evaluation helps analyze which parts of a programme are working and which are not;it also specifies alternate approaches that might improve a programme`s success.Evaluating public policy is extremely difficult as data may be imperfect and problematic assumptions may be done about future trends.In addition , there may be some factors influencing the outcomes of policy that simply can`t be measured . By drawing attention to emerging problems, policy evaluation influences the future policy actions and subsequent legislation , because programme shortcomings become more evident during these stages.Thus, the process is really circular with the ``end``,often marking the beginning of a new round of policy-making.
(7) Unfortunately , those who frame the issue to be addressed by policy often exert an enormous amount of influence over the entire process through their personalities , personal interests and political affiliations .The bias is extenuated by the players involved.The final outcome of the process , as well as its implementation , is therefore not as effective as that which could result from a purely rational process.Overall,however,public policy continues to be vital in addressing social concerns.
(8) Public policies in all modern societies are based on social considerations related to improving life quality of the nation and cover a broad field from education and economic policy to environment protection .There are a number of public policy issues that are traditionally more important and controversial than others .Some of the oldest and most timeless public policy issues include public health,public welfare , policy, fire service , and transportation. Public healthcare once universally thought of little concern has been elevated to the level of public policy . While in earlier periods the strength of nation was measured in terms of armaments one of the most important indicators of society development nowadays has become infant mortality, death with drug addiction as well as ability to finance for elderly population.
I.Answer the following questions.Reread the text if you do not remember the information.
1.What is public policy formed through?
2.What are the three main parts of public policy-making?
3.How many stages does the rational model of the public policy-making process include?
4.Why is it important to change public expectations at the first stage of the public policy-making process?
5.Why is the second stage of the public policy-making process called ``the legislative phase``?
6.What are the third and the forth stages of the public policy-making process focused on?
7.What are the most important public policy issues?
8.Public healthcare was of little concern in earlier times ,wasn`t it?
9.Who exerts a great amount of influence over the process of policy-making?
II.Work with a partner.Decide if the following statements are true or false.Find the sentences in the text that support your answer.
1.Public policy is a pattern of government activity that reflects the interests of society.
2.All the four stages of the public policy-making process are interrelated.
3.Religious and cultural institutions are excluded from making public policy.
4.There is always a gap between the real state of things in some area and what the public wants from the government to be improved.
5.Participants in the public policy debate speak to societal groups through various information sources.
6.The third stage of the public policy-making process is called the public opinion formation .
7.Sometimes the second stage of the public policy-making process is called the executive stage.
8.Public policies in all modern societies are aimed at improvin