Texts for Medical Institute 2 (translation)

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Text F
In the adult the muscles form about 35% -40% of the body weight. All the muscles are divided into the muscles of the trunk, head, and extremities.
Long, short and wide muscles form three basic groups. The long muscles compose the free parts of the extremities. The wide muscles form the walls of the body cavities. Some short muscles, of which stapedius [sta'pkdjas] (stremechko- Wai) is the smallest muscle in the human body, form facial musculature.
The structure of the muscular fibers is different in different groups of muscles. The muscles consist of a mass of muscle cells. The muscular fibers are connected together by connective tissue. There are many blood vessels and nerves in the muscles. The muscles are the active agents of motion and contraction.

Text G. Prof. Lesgaft's Scientific Research
Professor PF Lesgaft was born in 1837. He was a prominent Russian anatomist and a talented teacher. He was the first scientist in our country to work out the science of physical culture. He studied at the Medical Academy. After he graduated from the Academy he worked for the Degree of Doctor of Medicine. This degree was given to him in 1865 and in 1868 he received the Degree of Doctor of Surgery. Then he worked as the Professor of Anatomy at Kazan University. In 1886 he began to deliver lectures in Anatomy in Petersburg.
About 130 scientific works were written by Prof. Lesgaft. Many of them were translated into foreign languages. One of his main works was the book called The Basis of Theoretical Anatomy.
In one of his works which was written in 1892 Prof. Lesgaft divided the muscles into two basic groups - static and dynamic [dai'naemik]. In his work they were called strong, and skilled (agile). He determined that the static muscles were connected with large surfaces of the bones far from the point of their origin; they were formed by short bands of muscular fibers; the dynamic muscles were composed of the bands of long muscular fibers.
His studies on static and dynamic muscles were continued by Professor AK Koveshnikova, who received many interesting findings. In 1954 it was determined by her experiments on animals that static and dynamic muscles were different in the number of nerve fibers and the form of nerve endings.

Text H. Plastics for Health
In 1966 a very interesting operation was performed by the surgeons of Moscow Traumatology Institute.
The patient was an 18-year-old girl. She had the paralysis of the leg muscles. The patient was examined by the surgeons and then the operation was performed.
During the operation the muscles from her back and abdomen were transplanted to the thigh. These transplanted muscles were connected together by bands of special plastic - lavsan.
It is not the first time that plastics were used to restore health. For example, lavsan bands were also used if the patient had some defects in the spinal column. Special threads (yarns) were introduced into the diseased spinal column and the surgeons could examine the condition of the patient by X-rays.

Additional information

Text A. The Heart and the Vascular System
The heart is an inner hollow muscular organ placed within the chest and included in the pericardium. The base of the heart is against the third rib. Its apex is against the interspace between the fifth and sixth costal cartilages. The weight of the heart is about 300 grams (gr) in the male and about 220 gr in the female.
The heart consists of two separate chambers divided by the septum. Each of the chambers has two connected parts: the atrium and the ventricle. The atrioventricular valves separate the atria from the ventricles.
The right atrium is larger than the left one, but the walls of the left atrium are thicker than those of the right one. The right ventricle is triangular (triangular) in form and has thick walls. The right ventricle is in the anterior part of the heart. The left ventricle is longer and more conical than the right one. The walls of the left ventricle are three times as thick as the walls of the right one. The valves are located at the entrance and exit (Output) of each ventricle.
The muscular structure of the heart consists of two parts - the muscular layers of the atria and the muscular layers of the ventricles.
The vascular system consists of three groups of vessels - arteries, veins and capillaries.
The vessels carrying blood to pand from the tissues of the body compose the general circulation. They are called the systemic vessels.
The pulmonary circulation is formed by the vessels carrying blood to and from the lungs.
The portal system is formed by the veins passing to the liver.
Most of the arteries are composed of three coats. The arteries dilate and contract simultaneously with the action of the heart.

The Text
In the left chamber the atrium and ventricle are separated by the mitral valve.
In the right chamber the atrium and ventricle are separated by the tricuspid valve.
At the point of origin of the aorta in the left ventricle another valve is located. This valve is called the semilunar valve of the aorta.
At the point of origin of the pulmonary artery in the right ventricle the fourth valve is located. It is called the semilunar valve of the pulmonary artery.


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