1. Translate the text (Переведите текст):
SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY
The word “science” comes from the Latin word “scientia”, which means “knowledge”. Science covers the board field of knowledge that deals with facts and the relationship among facts.
Scientists study a wide variety of subjects. Some scientists search for clues to the origin of the universe and examine the structure of the cells of living plants and animals. Other researchers investigate why we act the way we do or try to solve complicated mathematical problems.
Scientists usе systematic methods of study to make observations and collect facts. They develop theories that help them order and unify facts. Scientific theories consist of general principles or laws that attempt to explain how and why something happens or has happened. A theory is considered to become a part of scientific knowledge if it has been tested experimentally and proved to be true.
Scientific study can be divided into the three major groups: the natural, social and technical science. As scientific knowledge has grown and become more complicated, many new field of science have appeared. At the same time, the boundaries between scientific fields have become less and less clear. Numerous areas of science overlap each other and it is often hard to tell where one science ends and another begins. All sciences are closely interconnected.
Science has great influence on our lives. It provides the basis of modern technology – the tools and machines that make our life and work easier. The discoveries and inventions of scientists also help shape our view about ourselves and our place in the universe
Technology means the use of people’s inventions and discoveries to satisfy their needs. Since people have appeared on the earth they had to get food, clothes and shelter. Through the ages people have invented tools, machines and materials to make work easier.
Nowadays, when people speak of technology, they generally mean industrial technology. Industrial technology began about 200 years ago with the development of the steam engine, the growth of factories and the mass production of goods. It influenced different aspects of people’s lives. The development of the car influenced where people lived and worked. Radio and television changed their leisure time. The telephone revolutionized communication.
Science has contributed much to modern technology. Science attempts to explain how and why things happen. Technology makes things happen. But not all technology is based on science. For example, people had made different objects from iron for centuries before they learnt the structure of metal. But some modern technologies, such as nuclear power production and space travel, depend heavily on science.
2. Ask 10 questions on the text (составьте 10 различных вопросов по содержанию текста): General (общий) - 2, Special (специальный) — 3, Alternative (альтернативный) - 3, Disjunctive (разделительный) – 2.
3. Determine the tense form of the verbs and translate the sentences into Russian (определите время глагола-сказуемого и переведите предложения)
1. The scientific investigations of the sea depths are being carried on for many years.
2. The scientists investigate the sea bottom from research ships.
3. The document has been already delivered.
4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, принимая во внимание место предлога при бессоюзном подчинении:
1. The house he lived in was old and gloomy.
2. The girl I danced with was my friend´s sister.
3. The report he delivered at the conference concerned chemistry.
5. Translate the sentences into Russian. Mind the difference in the translation of the Objective Infinitive Construction and the Subjective Infinitive Construction (переведите предложения на русский язык, учитывая разницу в переводе инфинитивных конструкций):
1. I think him to complete this work on Tuesday.
2. This device is considered to be the best.