Test 2. Variant 1.

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Uploaded: 24.11.2015
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1. Перепишите данные предложения, определите видовременные формы глаголов. Переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. You will have unlimited liability if you start a partnership.
2. If your company fails, you will only lose the value of your shares.
3. Many of the world′s diamonds are minded in South Africa and then they are sent to Amsterdam, where they are sold to international dealers.
4. President Clinton was elected in 1992.
5. I rang her yesterday, but she wasn′t in the office.
6. All the necessary documents will be sent to you next week.
2. Перепишите следующие предложения. Выберите нужную форму глагола (Present, Past, Future Simple или Present, Past, Future Continuous). Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. The stock market can be risky because the price of shares varies/is varying according to economic conditions.
2. Because of the high cost of sterling, exports don′t do/are not doing very well.
3. While we discussed/were discussing our expansion plans, the chairman suddenly announced his resignation.
4. I doubt very much whether they will give/will be giving you a pay rise.
5. Paul did/was doing some filing when his boss asked him to fetch an invoice.
6. I′m afraid I can′t see you on 22nd because I will attend/will be attending a training course in England.
3. Перепишите следующие предложения. Выберите нужную форму глагола (Present, Past, Future Simple или Present, Past, Future Perfect). Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. I didn′t have/haven′t had a holiday for two years.
2. They produced/have produced
2000 cars this year.
3. When I arrived at the office, the meeting started/had started.
4. I was nervous because I never gave/had never given a presentation.
5. The talks will finish/will have finished by 11. 15.
6. I will pay/have paid off the loan by the end of the year.
4. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты:
1. If you go into business alone, you can start or stop your business whenever you like.
2. If your business fails, you have to declare personal bankruptcy.
3. I′d like to be able to help you, but I do not have the authority.
4. After a few month on the training course, I could speak Japanese quite well.
5. You must save the file before you turn the computer off, or you will lose it.
6. I′m sorry, but we aren′t allowed to give you your bank balance by phone.
7. In the next few months, the price of oil may rise.
5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст:
Economic system
People and societies organize economic life to deal with the basic problems raised by scarcity and opportunity costs through economic systems. An economic system works via the interaction of three invisible forces: the invisible hand (economic forces), invisible foot (political forces) and invisible handshake (social forces)
An economic system can be described as the collection of institutions, laws, activities, controlling values, and human motivations that collectively provide a framework for economic decision-making. An economic system is closely tied to a political system through which people decide what their society desires. In a democracy, voting procedures determine society′s will. In an autocracy, a ruling individual or group of individuals decides what society′s desires are.
Before we discuss how the invisible forces operate, we need to find out what people can reasonably expect from an economic system.
There are three basic economic questions that every nation must consider. They are (1) What goods and services shall be produced? (2) How shall they be produced? and (3) For whom shall they be produced? Let us briefly examine each of these questions.
Within every nation, people must have some method of deciding what combination of goods and services they should produce with their limited resources.

Additional information

For example, will the production of consumer goods be restricted to the basic necessities, or will luxury goods, such as stereos and cameras, be produced as well? If luxury goods are to be produced, what kind and how many of each will be produced?
Once the question of what to produce is answered, it is necessary to decide what production methods are to be used. For example, food can be produced by a large number of workers using simple and inexpensive tools, or by a small number of workers using complex and expensive machinery. The same is true for the production of most items you use every day.
Because no nation can produce enough goods and services to satisfy everybody′s wants, it is necessary for people to have a method of deciding who gets the goods and services produced. Should everybody get an equal share, or should some people get more goods and services than others? If some people are to get more, how much more should they receive? This second question is perhaps the most difficult of all because it involves the issue of fairness; and different people have different ideas about what is fair.
Any economic system must use one or more decision-making methods or rules. Though the list of ways to make decisions is long, there are three basic approaches to economic decisions.
One of them is based on tradition (families often decide to do something the «old way»; people generally repeat the decisions made at an earlier time or by an earlier generation, etc.).
The second approach is based on authority or command (the boss, appointed or elected, can decide what is produced and who gets it). The third is based on markets (individuals bargain with one another privately to obtain goods) and so on.
Most economic systems use one of three basic methods to make economic decisions.
6. Перепишите предложения, подчеркните в них Participle I одной чертой, а Participle II двумя чертами. Письменно переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. Their products are always attractively packaged.
2. The bank decided that the project was not badly designed, so they refused to give them a loan.
3. South East Asia has one of the fastest growing economies in the world.
4. She is one of the best qualified people in the department.
5. The Engineering Division is much more efficiently run than the Plastics Division.
6. In the earthquake, Southern California was one of the worst effected areas.


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