Science and revolutionary business

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People thinking and dealing with current political and social issues in Russia are divided into two categories: some want or imagine themselves what they want, all kinds of reforms, improvements, exemptions and any prosperity to our poor, tormented people, but tend to all of these benefits by state; they are almost always blamed, and often criticized the government of this or that minister, perhaps the emperor himself, but at the same time think that the state is the best or even the only means to achieve people´s goals and to implement the high people´s destinies; and therefore put everywhere and always in the foreground prosperity and power of the state as the only possible basis for the public good. Others, however, came to the conviction that the state is in essence and in form, together with the church belongs to the infamous and most harmful to the creatures of historical ignorance and slavery; that in general, every state, but for the most all-Russian, not only prevent, but destroys the root of the very possibility of well-being and freedom of nations. Based on this conviction, they think that the liberation of our people must be the complete destruction of the All-Russian State.

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Additional information

Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin
Biography
Mikhail Bakunin (18 (30) in May 1814, with Pryamuhino Novotorzhsky uezdaTverskoy lips -.. June 9 (July 1) 1876 Bern, Switzerland), Russian revolutionary, publicist, one of the founders of anarchism, the ideology of populism.
  Life and struggle
  He was born in an old noble family. From 1829 he studied at the St. Petersburg Artillery School, but in 1834 was expelled for daring chief school. Then he served in the artillery units. In 1835 voluntarily left the service, almost been arrested for desertion. From 1835 he became a member of NV Stankevich circle, met with VG Belinsky and AI Herzen. Influenced Stankevich interested in Kant and Fichte, and Hegel´s philosophy. In 1840 he went to Germany, attended the lectures of Schelling in the University of Berlin. Here he met with the Young Hegelians left (A. Ruge, etc..). In 1842 in the journal A. Ruge "German Yearbook of Science and Art" published an article "The reaction in Germany", which recognized the need for "a complete destruction of the existing political and social order" and asserted that "the passion for destruction is at the same time creative passion. " In Zurich, he met with the utopian socialist W. Weitling and his theory of egalitarian communism. In February 1844 the Russian government demanded that Bakunin returned to Russia. Because of the failure to comply with this requirement, he was stripped of his nobility, all the rights of the state and sentenced in absentia to exile in Siberia. While living in Paris, Bakunin became close to P. Proudhon, became acquainted with K. Marx and F. Engels, translated into Russian "Communist Manifesto." Since the mid-1840s. Bakunin advocated a federation of Slavic peoples, participated in the liberation of the Slavic organizations. In 1848 he wrote a manifesto "Russian patriot appeal to the Slavic peoples", in which he called for the overthrow of the Habsburg Empire and the creation in Central Europe a loose federation of Slavic peoples. In 1848-49 was one of the leaders of the uprising in Prague and Dresden. After the defeat of the Dresden uprising (1849) was arrested as one of the rebel leaders sentenced Saxon court to death, commuted to life imprisonment. In 1850 he transferred to the Austrian authorities, imprisoned in the fortress. In 1851 issued by the tsarist government and was taken to St. Petersburg, where he was imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress. At the request of Nicholas I, Bakunin wrote "Confessions" (opubl.1921). In shape it was in the nature of repentance, however, according to Chairman of the State Board of AI Chernyshev, had "no shadow of a serious return to the principles of loyal". Bakunin spent six years in Schlisselburg fortress. By order of Emperor Alexander II was exiled to Eastern Siberia, he lived in Tomsk and Irkutsk. In 1861 he received permission to ride down the Amur. When they reached the sea coast, Bakunin moved to the American ship bound for Japan, then across the US arrived in England. In London, he worked in the "Bell" Herzen, with which soon dispersed (Herzen denounced political adventurism Bakunin). He participated in the Polish uprising (in early 1863). In 1864 he settled in Italy, where he founded the first anarchist organization "international fraternity". In subsequent years, Bakunin tirelessly to create a network of secret revolutionary societies in Europe, participated in the Lyons uprising (1870), led (1874) speech anarchists in Bologna, etc. In 1869 friends with SG Nechayev he took part in his conspiratorial activities, published together with him "People´s massacre" magazine.
  However, after the exposure of GA Lopatin Nechayev broke with the latter. Despite his illness, and the difficult financial situation, Bakunin to the very end of his life he maintained a resistance of revolutionary convictions, wrote appeals and proclamations, planned revolutionary new shares.
  With a short biography and bibliography of the author can be found in

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