1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите время глагола-сказуемого в страдательном залоге, переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. Workers in these areas are required to wear protective clothing.
2. By the time this is read the new technologies will have been introduced.
3. In view of personnel shortages the production plans are not being fulfilled.
4. The growth of unemployment rate was made away with (устранять).
5. The budget had to be cut down.
6. Measures against scarcity ought to be taken.
2. Перепишите следующие предложения, содержащие причастия, определите их форму и функцию, переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. The Finance Minister paid close attention to unprofitability in the economy revealing that about 24 000 enterprises operate at a loss.
2. Having been subjected to all the necessary tests the machine was accepted to serial production.
3. Having made an investment they expected to obtain a good profit.
4. The major need not being met today is the need for a common international approach to the regulation of international civil aviation service.
5. When properly operated such facilities can transport more people than individual automobiles.
6. Ideas discussed included ways to assist this country with the necessary equipment.
3. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения, определяя форму и функцию герундия:
1. Balancing the federal budget would stabilize prices.
2. This firm needs comprehensive auditing.
3. In business the price of being unprepared is often high.
4. The contract was made valid by having been extended for another term.
5. These economic benefits are largely due to our having joined the Common Market.
6. The workers stopped striking after having negotiated with managers.
4. Прочитайте предложения, перепишите их, определяя форму и функцию инфинитивов, переведите предложения на русский язык:
1. To widen bilateral trade is of great benefit for both countries.
2. To remain competitive we can′t raise prices.
3. This firm can′t have become bankrupt!
4. The problems with supplies might have been eliminated long ago.
5. First the manager defines the task to be done.
6. They must have been negotiating for two hours already.
5. Перепишите и переведите предложения, содержащие усилительную (эмфатическую) конструкцию it is…that и согласование времён:
1. It was the industrial revolution that changed the rural society into an urban one.
2. It is only in the summer period that our restaurant is open all day.
3. The Belfast aerospace group yesterday announced that 700 workers would be made redundant.
4. He indicated that new benefits for employees had been introduced by his company.
5. The engineers asked if the work could be compressed into 6 days.
6. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст:
Primary Functions of Money
Generally, economists have defined four types of functions of money which are as follows:
(i) Medium of exchange
(ii) Measurement of value;
(iii) Standard of deferred payments
(iv) Store of value.
These four functions of money have been summed up in a couplet which says: Money is a matter of functions four: a medium, a measure, a standard and a store.
These functions have been presented below:
(i) Money as a Unit of Value:
Money measures the value of various goods and services which are produced in an economy. In other words, money works as unit of value or standard of value. In barter economy it was very difficult to decide as to how much volume of goods should be given in exchange of a given quantity of a commodity.
Money, by performing the function of common measure of value, has saved the society from this difficulty. Now the value of various goods and services are expressed in terms of money. In this way, money works as common measure of value by expressing exchange value of all goods and services in money in the exchange market. By working as a unit of value, money has facilitated modern business and trade.
(ii) Medium of