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Решение: ИДЗ 1. Вариант 4

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1. Read the text and decide whether these statements are true or false.
1) The US government makes full use of economic tools.
2) The president takes all the necessary initiatives to ensure the growth and
stability of the United States.
3) The recession the USA economy is due to large spending on national
defense programs.
4) American consumers are greatly dependent on national debt.
5) The USA has lost their leading role in the world economy because of the
rapid growth of the economies of such countries as Brazil, Russia, India
and China.
6) The national debt of the USA is as large as the one of Japan.
The US Economy
1. The United States of America has the world´s largest economy. 2007
GDP is believed to be three times the size of the next largest economy, Japan.
US dominance has been eroded by the creation of the European Union
common market and by the rapid growth of the BRIC economies, in
particular China.
2. The recent failure in the US housing and credit markets has resulted
in a slowdown in the US economy. The forces of supply and demand directly
drive the price levels of goods and services. What to produce, and how much
of it is to be produced depends on the price level fixed by the interaction of
supply and demand.
3. The role of government in the US economy is very important when it
comes to decision-making in monetary and fiscal policies. The federal
government takes all the necessary initiatives to ensure the growth and
stability of the United States. The US government makes full use of
economic tools such as money supply, tax rates, and credit control to adjust
the rate of economic growth. The US Federal Government also regulates the
operations of private business concerns in order to prevent monopolies. The
government provides support for national defense, monetary aid for research
and development programs, funds for highway construction and
infrastructure in general.
4. The question of national debt is a controversial one within the US.
American consumers are also increasingly dependent on debt and have been
re-mortgaging their houses to higher loan amounts, and using the extra cash
to fund shopping. This debt figure is the largest in the world in absolute
terms, but as a percentage of GDP it is less than Japan and similar to several
European countries. Most of the debt is funded by central banks and
sovereign wealth funds from Asia, Europe and the Middle East.
2. Match the words and phrases with the definitions.
1 debt A being the only one in a given market selling a
specific product
2 market B a governing body or organization
3 goods C articles produced to be sold
4 government D the amount of money or goods, asked for or
given in exchange for something else
5 price E something owed, such as money, goods, or
6 taxpayer F an amount of cash or credit
7 money G a person who buys goods or uses services
8 bank H money in the form of bills or coins; currency
9 cash I a business establishment in which money is
kept for saving or commercial purposes or is
10 consumer J the fundamental facilities and systems serving a
country, as transportation and communication
systems, power plants, schools, ect.
11 failure K firmness in position
12 stability L one that pays taxes
13 monopoly M lack of success
14 infrastructure N the business of buying and selling a specified
3. Choose the best answer A, B or C from the list.
1. If you want to borrow money to buy a house, you ask the bank for a …
2. The bank has raised its interest …… to 6 %.
3. The general running costs a company, such as electricity and rent, are
known as ……
4. With the Mondex smart card, you can …… funds from one card to
5. Whereas you pay interest on a mortgage, you …… interest on a savings
6. The total sale during a trading period is called ……
7. A company which owns one or more subsidiaries is called a ……

Дополнительная информация

8. The strategy formulated by a government to central bank maintaining the
stability of the currency and reducing inflation is called monetary ….…
9. A fall in business activity which affects the national economy is called a
10. ....................... industries belong to and are run by the government.
11. If there´s only one producer in the market, there´s no ……………
12. McDonald’s has a very big ……… of the fast food market.
13. When a business works ........................ it runs successfully without
wasting resources.
1 A mortgage B loan C borrow
2 A rate B level C per cent
3 A burden B overheads C weight
4 A move B wire C transfer
5 A catch B earn C contract
6 A rotation B circulation C turnover
7 A mother B parent C older
8 A policy B tendency C politics
9 A slump B recession C fall
10 A state sector B governmental sector C nation sector
11 A market B competition C leadership
12 A piece B part C market share
13 A spectacular B efficiently C effective
4. Read the text. Use the words given in capitals on the right to form a
word that fits in the gap in the same line.
A country´s 1_______ rate tells more than just the 2_______
of the population that is without work. It shows how well
businesses are sustaining growth and creating jobs, and how
much 3______ are spending on goods and services.
Economists can look to a nation´s unemployment rate to
determine if an economy is close to 4_______ or if
5_______a slide will continue.
5. Choose the best answer A, B or C from the list to complete the text.
Gerdau: a Brasilian success story
Gerdau, the Brasilian steel maker, 1 _______ one of Latin America´s
2 ______ companies. It 3_______ productivity in its plants; it 4 _____ the
price and timing of its takeovers of smaller companies right; and, most
important, it 5 _______ to understand investors’ expectations. Investors want
a firm that’s focused and transparent, with a simple share structure, and that’s
exactly what Gerdau gives them.
The only problem in the short term is the problem of success. Gerdau
6 ______ a 50% market share in its domestic market, and so it 7 ______ the
attention of Cade, the monopolies authority.
These days it’s 8 ______ to do business in Brazil. The government is
simplifying the company-tax structure, it 9 ______ the labour market
10 ______ by changing the restrictive labour laws, and it is modernizing
company law in general.
1 A is becoming B becomes C are becoming
2 A many successful B more successful C most successful
3 A is rising B raises C is raising
4 A will get B is getting C is got
5 A is beginning B begins C began
6 A approach B is approaching C approaches
7 A attract B attracts C is attracting
8 A much easy B much easier C more easier
9 A is making B makes C will make

6. Translate into Russian.
1. In the market economy supply and demand decide everything; its direct
opposite is the planned economy.
2. In a planned economy a government decides what is produced, how much
is produced and how and at what price it is sold.
3. In the world there is no perfect economic system. Market economies have
their strengths, but they also have drawbacks. In planned economies
governments can make sure that everyone can afford basic commodities.
4. Planned economies have problems with supply as it is difficult to calculate
how much to produce and how high a demand to expect. People have to
hoard different goods and shortages of goods become common.
5. In many countries privately-owned businesses exist alongside state-run
industries, which need protection from free market competition for their
6. Deregulation leads to increased competition and the influence of market
7. Governments may put limits on free enterprise by banning trade in various
goods, preventing monopolies and protecting consumers and the
7. Writing.


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