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Personnel Management (перевод)

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Personnel Management
Personnel administration represents a major subsystem in the general management system in which it refers to the management of human resources. It is used to identify the entire scope of management policies and programs in the recruitment, allocation, leadership, and direction of manpower. Personnel administration begins with the definition of the required quantities of particular personal capabilities. Thereafter, people are to be found, selected, trained or retrained, negotiated with, counseled, led, directed, committed, rewarded, transferred, promoted, and finally released or retired.
In many of these relations, managers deal with their associates as individuals — the field takes its name in part from this type of relationship. In some working organizations, however, employees have been represented by unions, and managers bargain with these associations. Such collective-bargaining relationships are generally described as labour relations. Functions of management we should consider here could be defined in the following way.
Major areas of personnel department responsibilities include organizing-devising and revising organizational structures of authority and functional responsibility. They are aimed to facilitate two-way, reciprocal, vertical and horizontal communication. The next one is staffing, or manning-analyzing jobs that develop job descriptions and specifications. That is — appraising and maintaining an inventory of available capabilities, recruiting, selecting, placing, transferring, demoting, promoting and thus assuring qualified manpower when and where it is needed.
Planning and forecasting personnel requirements in terms of numbers and special qualifications as well as scheduling inputs, has been marked as very important for anticipating the need for appropriate managerial policies and programs. One should bear in mind that training the development-assisting team members, from pre-employment. preparatory job training to executive development programs will be able to secure their continuing personal growth. It is necessary for a personnel manager to make collective bargaining-negotiating agreements and in follow these ones through in day-to-day administration;
Rewarding a personnel manager have to ensure provides financial and non-financial incentives for individual commitment and contribution. And of course, general administration - developing appropriate styles and patterns of leadership throughout the organization is one of the main areas of personnel management. It should be also mentioned here the importance of auditing, reviewing, and researching, that is, evaluating current performance and procedures in order to facilitate control and improve future practice.
To designate equally a body of knowledge, a process and a profession the term "ergonomics" or "human-factors engineering" has been used. Human engineering they have called it on the North American continent or ergonomics as it has been called in Japan, in Europe are originated from the Greek words: "ergon" — "work" and "nomos" — law. It is a collection of data and principles about human characteristics, capabilities and limitations in relation to ma-chines, jobs and environments, to take into account the safety, comfort, and productiveness of human users and operators. The data and principles of human-factors engineering are concerned with human performance, behaviour and training in man-machine systems and the design and development of man-machine systems.

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