Mikhail Bakunin. Selected Writings - VOLUME III

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Mikhail Bakunin. Selected Writings - VOLUME III Mikhail Bakunin. Selected Writings - VOLUME III

We want to complete the will of all peoples now oppressed by the empire, with the right of full self order, based on their own instincts, needs, and will; so, federiruyas bottom-up, those who want to be members of the Russian people could work together to create a truly free and happy society in a friendly and federated communications with similar associations in Europe and in the whole world ...

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Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin
Biography
Mikhail Bakunin (18 (30) in May 1814, with Pryamuhino Novotorzhsky uezdaTverskoy lips -.. June 9 (July 1) 1876 Bern, Switzerland), Russian revolutionary, publicist, one of the founders of anarchism, the ideology of populism.
  Life and struggle
  He was born in an old noble family. From 1829 he studied at the St. Petersburg Artillery School, but in 1834 was expelled for daring chief school. Then he served in the artillery units. In 1835 voluntarily left the service, almost been arrested for desertion. From 1835 he became a member of NV Stankevich circle, met with VG Belinsky and AI Herzen. Influenced Stankevich interested in Kant and Fichte, and Hegel´s philosophy. In 1840 he went to Germany, attended the lectures of Schelling in the University of Berlin. Here he met with the Young Hegelians left (A. Ruge, etc..). In 1842 in the journal A. Ruge "German Yearbook of Science and Art" published an article "The reaction in Germany", which recognized the need for "a complete destruction of the existing political and social order" and asserted that "the passion for destruction is at the same time creative passion. " In Zurich, he met with the utopian socialist W. Weitling and his theory of egalitarian communism. In February 1844 the Russian government demanded that Bakunin returned to Russia. Because of the failure to comply with this requirement, he was stripped of his nobility, all the rights of the state and sentenced in absentia to exile in Siberia. While living in Paris, Bakunin became close to P. Proudhon, became acquainted with K. Marx and F. Engels, translated into Russian "Communist Manifesto." Since the mid-1840s. Bakunin advocated a federation of Slavic peoples, participated in the liberation of the Slavic organizations. In 1848 he wrote a manifesto "Russian patriot appeal to the Slavic peoples", in which he called for the overthrow of the Habsburg Empire and the creation in Central Europe a loose federation of Slavic peoples. In 1848-49 was one of the leaders of the uprising in Prague and Dresden. After the defeat of the Dresden uprising (1849) was arrested as one of the rebel leaders sentenced Saxon court to death, commuted to life imprisonment. In 1850 he transferred to the Austrian authorities, imprisoned in the fortress. In 1851 issued by the tsarist government and was taken to St. Petersburg, where he was imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress. At the request of Nicholas I, Bakunin wrote "Confessions" (opubl.1921). In shape it was in the nature of repentance, however, according to Chairman of the State Board of AI Chernyshev, had "no shadow of a serious return to the principles of loyal". Bakunin spent six years in Schlisselburg fortress. By order of Emperor Alexander II was exiled to Eastern Siberia, he lived in Tomsk and Irkutsk. In 1861 he received permission to ride down the Amur. When they reached the sea coast, Bakunin moved to the American ship bound for Japan, then across the US arrived in England. In London, he worked in the "Bell" Herzen, with which soon dispersed (Herzen denounced political adventurism Bakunin). He participated in the Polish uprising (in early 1863). In 1864 he settled in Italy, where he founded the first anarchist organization "international fraternity". In subsequent years, Bakunin tirelessly to create a network of secret revolutionary societies in Europe, participated in the Lyons uprising (1870), led (1874) speech anarchists in Bologna, etc. In 1869 friends with SG Nechayev he took part in his conspiratorial activities, published together with him "People´s massacre" magazine.
  However, after the exposure of GA Lopatin Nechayev broke with the latter. Despite his illness, and the difficult financial situation, Bakunin to the very end of his life he maintained a resistance of revolutionary convictions, wrote appeals and proclamations, planned revolutionary new shares.
  With a short biography and bibliography of the author can be found in

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