logically Benefit

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Uploaded: 23.01.2017
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Introduction 6
1. Logic as the science of thinking 6
1.1. The logic of science 6
1.2. Thinking as an object of Logic 8

2. History of Logic 10
3. The form and content of thought 15
4. Language as a system of signs 20

4.1. The notion of plate 20
4.2. Semiotic aspects of linguistic signs 21
4.3. Structure and 23 kinds of languages
5. Truth 26
5.1. 26 Criteria of truth
5.2. The validity and accuracy of thought 27

6. Methodological bases of the logic 29
7. The notion of a form of abstract thinking 34

7.1. Signs 34 items
7.2. The concept and the image of 35
7.3. Logical methods of concept formation 36
7.4. The concept and the word 37
8. Characteristics of the concept. The relationship between the concepts. 38
8.1. The name of the content and scope of the concept 38
8.2. The relationship between the concepts of 39
9. The logical operations with concepts ..44
9.1. Limitation and generalization of concepts 44
9.2. The division of the concept 45
9.3. Definition 47
10. The judgment as a form of thinking 50
10.1. The judgment and sentence 51
10.2 Types of simple judgments 52
11. Types of judgments in quantity and quality 53
11.1. Division of judgments in quality and quantity ... 53
12. Distribution in terms of categorical
Relationship between simple judgments judgments 58
13. The inference, its structure and classification 60

13.1. The origin and nature of the conclusions 60
13.2. The structure of the conclusions 62
13.3. Classification conclusions 64

14. Inferences on the "logical grid" 66
15. Inferences by converting
simple judgments 67
16. The categorical syllogism 71
16.1. The structure of the categorical syllogism 71
16.2. The figure and the mode of COP 73
16.3. Determination of the COP by using the correctness
table correct modes 75
17. Determination of the correctness of the COP 75
17.1 Rules parcels and terms 75
17.2 method pie charts 78
18. Short and complex forms
categorical syllogism 82
19. The complex as a form of judgment
abstract thinking 86
20. Types of complex judgments X1)
21. Logical laws 95

21.1. Zakon´tozhdestva 96
21.2. 97 The law of contradiction
21.3. 98 Law of the excluded middle
21.4. sufficient legal grounds 100
21.5. Logical laws in symbolic form 101
22. Inferences propositional logic 102
22.1. Conditional reasoning H> ´
22.2. Separating deductions, SW
23. Inductive reasoning 10 /
23.1. Complete and incomplete induction Yu
23.2. The breeding induction. About statistics
methods "
23.3. 24. The method of pie charts 112
24.1 Inference by logical grid 113
24.2. The immediate inference 114
24.3. Separating deductions 115
24.4. Inductive reasoning 116
25. The scientific induction 119
25.1. The concept of cause and effect 119
25.2. Methods of establishing a causal link 119
26. modal logic 123
26.1. Modal judgments 123
26.2. Types and modalities 124
27. The argument 128
27.1. argument structure 128
27.2. Arguments for a specific audience of 130
27.3. Types of arguments 131
27.4. to the argument Requirements 132
28. The dispute ... 132
28.1. The dispute, its types 132
28.2. Tricks used in disputes 135
29. sophism 140
30. Paradoxes 144
Examination by the logic 149
Questions to offset 151
References 152

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