I. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий, а также сравнительные конструкции и союзы. 1. The simplest method of heat transfer is conduction.
2. Carbon dioxide is a gas that is 1.5 times heavier than air.
3. Water isn’t so effective as dry powders in metal fire extinction.
4. Combustion of solids occurs by two mechanisms, either flaming or smoldering.
5. Both carbon dioxide and dry chemicals can be used for electrical fires.
6. The smaller a water droplet size is, the more effective it becomes for fire extinguishment.
II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения, содержащие модальные глаголы или их эквиваленты. Подчеркните их.
1. Smoke can travel considerable distances from its source by means of air currents.
2. Firefighters may use thermal imaging cameras during firefighting operations.
3. Rescuers must immediately assess each emergency situation upon arrival.
4. Hotel employees should be able to identify common fire hazards and how to prevent them.
5. The occupants will be allowed to return to the building when it is declared safe.
III. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения, обращая внимание на особенности перевода причастий и независимого причастного оборота.
1. Inside a burning building firefighters are exposed to ambient temperatures between 150 °C and 350 °C.
2. Smoke produced by different fires will vary enormously.
3. Having extinguished the fire, firefighters remained at the scene to clear away damaged structures. 4. The ladders having been put up, the firefighters could rescue people from the building.
IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения в страдательном залоге.
1. The majority of fires are spread by a combination of three processes – convection, conduction and radiation.
2. He was informed that the fire had been extinguished by the use of first-aid appliances.
3. Improperly installed detectors can be often found in the private dwelling houses.
4. Fire extinguishers must be always maintained in a state of operational readiness.
V. Перепишите и письменно переведите предложения, содержащие инфинитив, объектный и субъектный инфинитивный обороты, герундий.
1. To perform search and rescue operations safely and effectively specialized resources are required. 2. We know extinguishing media to be applied to extinguish electrical fires.
3. Firefighting is considered to be a physically demanding job.
4. By determining the type of a fire load, the fire department can determine the minimum water flows they will need to extinguish a fire.
VI. Прочтите и устно переведите текст "Carbon Dioxide Systems".
1) Перепишите и письменно переведите 1 и 2 абзацы.
2) Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту по-русски:
a) How can carbon dioxide be used for extinguishing purposes?
b) What are fixed carbon dioxide systems used for?
Carbon dioxide is a non-combustible gas that can dilute the available oxygen to a concentration that will not support combustion. Carbon dioxide systems will extinguish fire in practically all combustibles except those which have their own oxygen supply and certain metals that cause decomposition of the carbon dioxide. CO2 does not conduct electricity and can be used on energized electrical equipment. It will not freeze or deteriorate with age.
Carbon dioxide is an effective extinguishing agent for fires of ordinary combustibles, flammable liquids, and electrical fires. It is a clean agent in that it will not damage equipment or leave a residue. Some cooling is realized upon agent discharge, but a thermal shock to equipment should not occur if the system is properly designed and installed.
For fire extinguishing purposes CO2 is usually stored under high pressure in a liquid form. It may be applied for fire extinguishment by means of three different mechanisms:
1) Hand hoses from portable storage