Контрольная работа №6
1. Discovering new reserves of oil is only the beginning of the story. It’s then the job of a new team of economists, scientists and engineers to decide whether and how to go into large-scale commercial production.
2. Once oil or gas have been discovered, it has to be established how much is there, how much can be recovered, what its quality is and how the oil and gas can be transported safety to a refinery or terminal. In other words, is the find economically viable? If so, further wells will have to be drilled and production facilities established.
3. The recovery factor - the amount of oil that can be economically extracted compared with the total amount estimated to be in the ground - varies widely. Twenty years ago a recovery factor of about 30 per cent was normal. Today the average is about 45 per cent. Improved technology is likely to increase this further.
4. Crude oil is found in underground pockets or traps. Gas and water arc generally found in the reservoir too - usually under pressure. This pressure is sometimes sufficient to force the oil to the surface of the well and excess pressure may cause problems.
5. In the early stages of production an oilfield may have freely flowing wells, but as oil is extracted the pressure decreases and pumping may become necessary. Alternatively, it may be possible to increase the pressure by injecting further gas or water into the edges of the reservoir.
6. Crude oil is a natural substance whose composition varies. Even in the same oilfield, where oil is obtained from different depths, it can vary greatly in composition and appearance. It may be an almost colorless liquid or a sluggish, black substance, so heavy that it cannot be pumped at atmospheric temperatures. Generally, however, crude oils look rather like thin, brown treacle.
7. There is no single solution to the problem of getting oil out. Production and transport methods will depend on where the oil is found, and in particular, whether it has been found to drill for oil beneath the sea than on land, which is one reason why the majority of the oil that we use is produced onshore.
I. Переведите текст в письменной форме.
II. Отметьте утверждения как верные (True) или неверные (False).
1. Crude oil is the only hydrocarbon found in a reservoir.
2. Reservoir pressure causes problems.
3. The fluid extracted from the well usually contains oil.
4. Crude oil is a natural substance whose composition is stable.
III. Ответьте на следующие вопросы.
1. What team is needed to solve the problem of production?
2. Who usually estimates the quality of oil in a reservoir?
3. What is the reason of an increased recovery factor?
4. Is crude oil the only hydrocarbon found in a reservoir?
5. Does reservoir pressure cause problems?
6. Why is pumping so necessary?
7. What is the way to increase pressure?
8. Does oil in one reservoir differ from that of the other one?
9. What does oil look like?
10. What do production and transport methods depend on?
11. Where is it cheaper to drill oil?
12. What is the only ways of getting oil to the recovery? Why?
IV. Продолжите предложения.
1. Once oil or gas have been discovered ...
2. Crude oil found ...
3. The fluid extracted from the well ...
4. There is no single solution to the problem of getting oil out ...
V. Дайте русские эквиваленты следующим фразам.
1. Underground pockets.
3. Economically viable.
4. Recovery factor.
6. Underwater production system.
VI. Составьте предложения, используя следующие выражения. Production, inject, production facilities, economically viable, recovery factor.