Контрольная работа 4
Задание №1. Прочитайте текст “The American Constitution as Supreme Law” и изложите на русском языке письменно основную идею текста в 2-3 предложениях.
THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION AS SUPREME LAW
1. The U.S. Constitution is the “supreme law of the land”. This means that when state constitutions or laws passed by state legislatures or the national Congress are found to conflict with the federal Constitution, they have no force. The Constitution provides the framework for the organization of the United States Government.
2. The American Constitution is based on the doctrine of the separation of powers between the executive, legislative and judiciary. Besides providing for the general organization of these branches, the Constitution carefully outlines which powers each branch may have and exercise. It also reserves numerous rights and powers for exercise by the people of the United States.
3. Final authority is vested in the American people, who can change the fundamental law, if they wish, by amending the Constitution. The people do not exercise their authority directly, however. They delegate the day-to-day business of government to public officials, both elected and appointed.
4. Although the U.S. Constitution has changed in many aspects since it was first adopted, its basic principles remain the same now as in 1789:
• The three main branches of government are separate and distinct from one another. The powers given to each branch are balanced by the powers of the other two.
• The Constitution stands above all other laws, executive acts and regulations.
• All persons are equal before the law and are equally entitled to its protection. All states are equal, and none can receive special treatment from the federal government. State governments, like the federal government, must be democratic in form.
• The people have the right to change their form of national government by legal means defined in the Constitution itself.
5. It is significant that a majority of the 27 amendments expand individual civil and political liberties, while only a few are concerned with the basic governmental structure.
Note: 1. day-to-day business – повседневная работа, обязанность по управлению
Задание №2. Найдите в тексте ответы на следующие вопросы и запишите их.
1. What does the expression the “supreme law of the land” mean?
2. What is the American Constitution based on?
3. How can the American citizens change the fundamental law?
4. Have the basic principles of the U.S. Constitution changed greatly since 1789?
Задание №3. Найдите в тексте “The American Constitution as Supreme Law” английские эквиваленты следующих слов и словосочетаний. Запишите русский и английский варианты.
1. верховный закон страны
2. противоречить конституции
3. предусматривать (обеспечивать структуру)
4. доктрина разделения властей
5. многочисленные права и полномочия
6. вносить поправки в Конституцию
7. использовать (осуществлять) власть
8. быть равным перед законом
9. иметь право на защиту
10. гражданские и политические свободы
Задание №4. Составьте словосочетания, объединив по смыслу части А и В. Запишите полученные словосочетания и переведите их на русский язык письменно.
1. to pass public officials
2. to be based on all other laws
3. to adopt framework
4. to change the doctrine of the separation of powers
5. to remain form of national government
6. to receive individual civil and political liberties
7. to provide special treatment
8. to stand above the U.S. Constitution
9. to expand the same
10. to delegate day-to-day business of government to laws
Задание №5. Перепишите предложения, содержащие герундий. Подчеркните герундий. Переведите предложения на русский язык письменно.
1. He was fined for exceeding the speed limit.
2. He was accused of leaking classified information to the press.