Контрольная работа №3
I. Прочтите текст и письменно ответьте на вопросы, следующие за ним.
1. We say that unemployment exists where people capable and willing to work are unable to find suitable paid employment But where an economy is adapting to changing conditions, there will always be some persons unemployed as they change jobs or as seasonal work comes to an end.
2. Unemployment may occur for many different reasons. There will always be some people changing jobs. In certain occupations, e.g. unskilled labour in the construction industry, workers are not employed regularly by one employer. When a contract is completed labour is not required. Occasionally workers are discharged when a factory is being reorganized.
3. Unemployed workers usually register at the local employment exchange from which employers can hire them. The unemployed are paid certain benefits.
4. Employment in some industries, e.g. building, fruitpicking is seasonal in character. Seasonal employment can be reduced out of "season" and admit such persons as students and housewives during the busy period. Sometimes there are unemployed workers of a particular occupation in one part of the country but a shortage of the same type of work in other parts. Thus today there is a surplus of unskilled and manual labourers in the north of England, whereas firms in the London area have vacancies unfilled. Two main reasons can be suggested for this type of unemployment – ignorance of opportunities, and immobility of labour.
5. Workers may be in "between jobs". Some of them are looking for better jobs, others are seeking better salaries. Young people search for their first jobs. This is called frictional unemployment. This type is usually short-term and regarded as inevitable.
6. Unemployment may also be caused by important changes in the structure of consumer demand and in technology. As a result some workers find that their skills and experience are unwanted by these changes. This type of employment is more long-term and regarded as more serious. It is known as structural unemployment.
7. The full-employment or natural rate of unemployment ranges between 5 and 6 percent.
1. What types of unemployment can we distinguish?
2. Why is frictional unemployment regarded as inevitable?
3. What causes structural unemployment?
4. What is the national rate of unemployment?
II. Письменно переведите 2, 5, 6-й абзацы текста.
III. Употребите глаголы в нужной видо-временной форме.
1. An individual who (to be) currently unemployed and (to look for) work is counted as unemployed. 2. The total number of unemployed (to divide) by the number of persons in the labour force. The result (to multiply) by 100 and (to call) the unemployment rate. 3. Unemployment (peak) last year and since then (go) down. 4. The IMF (International Monetary Fund) (to carry out) a study last year. 5. In this study they (to project) a decline in GNP in most countries. 6. He (to be) out of work for three months.
IV. Выпишите из 2, 3, 6-го абзацев предложения с глаголами в страдательном залоге. Определите видо-временную форму глаголов.
V. Преобразуйте предложения из страдательного залога в действительный
1. The rate of unemployment was decreased by 0.3 %. 2. Full employment does not mean that everyone is employed. 3. Some unemployment is regarded as normal. 4. The "Financial Times" has always been used by business circles for stock exchange data. 5. Structural unemployment was caused by important changes in the structure of consumer demand.
VI. Подчеркните инфинитив, определив его форму и функцию.
1. The owner of the firm does not like to be deprived of his rights. 2. The sales manager is unhappy to have failed the sales. 3. Their income is not rising enough to keep up with the cost of living. 4. One of the best ways to get a feeling for economics is to examine some problems in the field. 5. To disprove this let’s review the unemployment rate.