Контрольная работа №2 по английскому
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Контрольная работа 2
I. Прочтите, устно переведите текст и письменно ответьте на вопросы, следующие за ним:
The Development of Prison Systems
1. In the history of human race, prisons have only recently been used to punish people for wrong acts. A long time prisons were places of preliminary detention only. People were kept in prison to wait for torture, death, or other cruel punishment. Near the end of the Middle Ages the people of Europe became angry about the cruel acts of that system and disagreed strongly. Therefore, less cruel techniques of punishment were used. For example, people were sent away from their country and were never allowed to come back, or they were kept in prison.
2. The early settlers of America brought with them the idea of keeping every prisoner alone in a small room. The prisoners could not see or talk to each other and they could only read and exercise by themselves. After a long period of being alone, the prisoners could lie allowed to go because they would not do any more wrong acts. The Walnut Street Jail in America worked on this idea. At the end of the eighteenth century, however, a religious group stopped that system.
3. About the time of the American Civil War, a new place for young people who did something wrong was built in Elmira, New York. This new system worked on the important ideas of putting prisoners of the same age into one group, educating them, and training them.
4. At the end of the nineteenth century, a new idea was started. It allowed prisoners to work together during the day. It also made some problems of controlling the prison fewer. Later many prisons were built in America and in the other countries which worked on this idea.
5. When a person commits a crime, he is not always sent to prison. If he has commited some minor offence, he may be released from detention and allowed to remain in the community. This type of punishment is usually administered to juveniles. It is young people who usually commit the less serious crimes. For this reason they are given less punishment Although the individual is not in jail, he is under the supervision of special police officers. These officers watch his actions very closely. This type of punishment is called probation.
6. The conditions of the probation are decided in a meeting during which a judge hears the offender’s case. After this meeting, the judge issues an order of probation. This order can only he made with the offender’s consent. If the offender does not wish to be placed on probation, he must go to jail.
7. Once on probation, the offender cannot disobey the probation order. He must report to the police at least once a week. During the whole period of probation, the offender must live according to the conditions ordered by the court. If there is a breach of the probation order, the offender may be taken off probation and placed in jail.
1. What have only recently been used to punish people for wrong acts?
2. A long time ago, why were people kept in prison?
3. Why did the people of Europe become angry near the end of the Middle Ages?
4. Who brought with them the idea of keeping every prisoner alone in a small room?
5. What jail in America worked on the idea of allowing prisoners to go after a long period of being alone.
6. Who stopped the system of keeping every prisoner alone in a small room?
7. Where was a new place built for young people who did something wrong?
8. What were the important ideas of this system?
9. Where are offenders on probation allowed to remain?
10. Why are juveniles usually placed on probation?
11. How often must an offender on probation report to the police?
12. Who orders the conditions of the probation?
13. Where must an offender go if he or she does not wish to be placed on probation?
14. What happens if the offender breaches the probation order?
II. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2, 5 и 6-ой абзацы.
III. По суффиксу определите и отберите 1) существительные, .2) глаголы, 3) прилагательные, 4) наречия:
recently, detention, justify, serious, supervision, closely, important, prisoner, specialize, individual, punishment, religious, offender.
IV. Вставьте одно из местоимении some, any, somebody, anybody, someone, something, anything.
1. Is there ... new?
2. There is ... butter on the table, but there isn’t... milk.
3. If there is ... else you want, please let me know.
4. Would you like ... to eat?
5. We have not told ... about it.
6. I saw ... at the window.
V. Перечислите, какие видовременные формы глаголов в страдательном залоге встречаются в тексте и подтвердите одним примером на текста.
VI. Раскройте скобки, употребив глагол в нужной видовременной форме, учитывая правило согласования времен:
1. The ship (to go) to the North when a storm (to break) out.
2. When I (to get) to the station, I (to learn) that the train (to leave) a few minutes before.
3. We (to see) your brother a week ago but we not (to see) him since then.
4. How long you (to play tennis)?
5. Napoleon hoped that after he (to capture) Moscow the Russians (to beg) peace, but this did not happen.
VII. Переведите прямую речь в косвенную.
1. She said: "My brother is a doctor".
2. She said to mу: "Do you know him well?"
3. She said to me: "Open the door, please."
4. She said: "I have been translating the article for two hours."
5. She said: "I shall speak to him tomorrow."
6. She said to her: "What are you doing?"
7. He said: "I left school three years ago."
VIII. Преобразуйте предложения из действительного залога в страдательный.
1. The speaker stressed the importance of the Congress.
2. This actor will play the part of Hamlet.
3. The students have learnt a lot of new English words.
4. The director himself answered the phone.
5. Somebody recommended me that doctor.
6. They had eaten all the dinner before they finished the conversation.
7. Somebody has locked the box and I cannot open it.
8. Our friends are making special preparations.
IX. Преобразуйте предложения из страдательного залога в действительный.
1. The student was asked to tell the story once again.
2. Moscow is very much admired by the visitors.
3. "King Lear" can be successfully performed by a group of amateurs.
4. The meal is being prepared now.
5. Many valuable paintings were destroyed by the fire.
6. Light and heat is given to us by the sun.
7. The question hasn´t been answered properly.
X. Переведите предложения с английского языка на русский, обращая внимание на различные значения слов it, one.
1. There was a new film on TV. It was very interesting.
2. Could you give me the book on Kant? It is on the shelf.
3. It was because of the weather, that we stayed at home.
4. We use a new method. It is more effective than the old one.
5. It often rains in autumn.
6. It is necessary to go there at once.
7. I work as a teacher. It is very interesting.
8. We were given a new text. It was more difficult than the previous one.
9. It is he who is the best student of the group.
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