Task 1. Read the text.
1.1.Match the headings with the paragraphs in the text
a. Greeting people
b. Behaviour in religious buildings
c. Body language and gestures
d. Knowledge of foreign languages
e. Eating habits
Nobody actually wants to cause offence but as tourism becomes ever more international it is increasingly easy to get it wrong. There may be a single European market but it does not mean that people behave the same in Greece as they do in Denmark.
While travelling people visit a lot of different countries and experience a lot of different cultures. Knowledge of international etiquette helps to behave socially in public. While visiting churches, mosques, and other religious buildings, it’s important to wear appropriate *clothes and cover up bear skin. Men should always wear shirts. Shorts are not a good idea for women – women should in general avoid showing bare shoulders, arms, legs and in mosques and temples need to cover heads too. In fact when in Egypt, the Middle East and Asia tourists need to take off their shoes before entering any religious buildings – outdoor shoes are seen as carrying all the impurities of the world.
There are some customs concerning body language and gestures. For example, when tourists get to the Far East, from Singapore onwards, they should be practically careful about your posture. The soles of feet for example, are considered to be the dirtiest part of the body, and they should never be pointed at someone – so crossing legs in public is not a good idea when in Singapore and Thailand. Also, avoid pointing, certainly at people, but also at objects. In Japan and other Far Eastern countries, blowing nose in public is also not really acceptable.
When it comes to greeting people in different countries there are a lot of differences. You’ll find Egyptian and Middle Eastern men kissing each other. In many European countries handshaking is an automatic gesture. In France good manners require that on arriving at a meeting a manager shakes hands with everyone present. This can be a demanding task and, in crowded room, may require gymnastic ability if the farthest hand is to be reached. Handshaking is almost as popular in other countries – including Germany, Belgium and Italy. But Northern Europeans, such as the British and Scandinavians, are not quite so fond of physical demonstrations of friendliness. The Spanish and many southern Europeans also kiss each other on the cheeks – though not normally the men. In Japan they’ll bow – and the extent of the bow depends on the respect due to that person. The safest way to greet someone, certainly outside Asia, is just with a firm handshake. Although make sure it is the right hand: in a lot of countries, particularly African and Middle Eastern countries, the left hand is regarded as unclean, so you shouldn’t give things to people, pass food, and so on, with your left hand.
Food and eating habits is probably the most interesting area of international etiquette, but you will be eating in international restaurants most of the time. There’s lots of potential for unintentionally causing offence. For example, in Singapore tourists always say “no” to a second helping of food, and it’s polite to leave some food on the plate at the end, whereas in somewhere like Russia that would probably offend the host.
In Europe the most common challenge is not the content of the food, but the way you behave
as you eat. Some things are not just done. In France it is not good manners to raise tricky questions
of business over the main course. Business has its place: after the cheese course. Unless you are
prepared to eat in silence you have to talk about somethi