I. Перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, является ли подчеркнутая форма инфинитивом, причастием или герундием. Переведите письменно предложения на русский язык.
Example: The falling water has kinetic energy. Falling – Причастие I. Падающая вода обладает кинетической энергией.
1. Though first developed for military purposes radar can be used in modern cars.
2. By using this device, we are able to make new kinds of experiment.
3. The elements possessing this property make the experiment impossible.
4. The progress of electronics to have resulted in the invention of electronic computers was a breakthrough of the second part of the 20th century.
II. Раскройте скобки, используя Participle I или Participle II. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
Example: (Heat) magnet loses some of its magnetism. – Heated magnet loses some of its magnetism.
1. The device (produce) in the laboratory was portable.
2. Early computers (use) vacuum tubes could perform computations in milliseconds.
3. Now computers are arrays of integrated circuits (build out) of pieces of silicon.
4. The (penetrate) power and other characteristics of X-rays make them extremely useful in medicine.
III. Перефразируйте данные сложные предложения, употребив независимый причастный оборот. Переведите письменно полученные предложения.
Example: As the weather was fine, we went for a walk. – The weather being fine, we went for a walk. – Так как погода была хорошая, мы пошли гулять.
1. If the temperature increases, the resistivity of the semiconductor decreases.
2. When the research work was fulfilled, we decided to publish the results.
3. When the first communications satellite was launched, the satellite wireless industry exploded.
IV. Прочитайте и перепишите следующие предложения. Определите, к какому типу условного предложения относится каждое из них. Переведите письменно предложение.
Example: Ice will turn into water if you heat it. – Условное предложение I типа. – Лед превратится в воду, если его нагревать.
1. If an Integrated services Digital Network (ISDN) is developed in our country, the subscribers will have the complete spectrum of telecommunications services.
2. The machine wouldn’t have been broken if all the safety measures had been taken.
3. The reaction wouldn’t proceed if we didn’t add some water.
4. Global communication and computer networks would become more and more a part of professional and personal lives if the price of microcomputer and network access dropped.
Работа над текстом.
I. Read the text. Then read the titles. Which of the following titles is the best?
a. Space Satellites.
b. Global Positioning System.
c. Segments of Global Positioning System.
d. Radio-Navigation Systems.
Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based radio-navigation system, consisting of 24 satellites and ground support. GPS provides users with accurate information about their position and velocity, as well as the time, anywhere in the world and in all weather conditions.
GPS, formally known as the Navstar Global Positioning System, was initiated in 1973.1________. GPS satellites carry atomic clocks that provide extremely accurate time. The time information is placed in the codes broadcast by the satellite so that a receiver can continuously determine the time the signal was broadcast. The signal contains data that a receiver uses to compute the locations of the satellites and to make other adjustments needed for accurate positioning. The receiver uses the time difference between the time of signal reception and the broadcast time to compute the distance, or range, from the receiver to the satellite. The receiver must account for propagation delays, or decreases in the signal´s speed caused by the ionosphere and the troposphere. With information about the ranges to three satellites and the location of the satellite when the signal was sent, the receiver can compute its own three-dimensional position.