UNCTAD Before and After
1. The world economy in the 1980s has been characterized by a low-down in growth of demand and output, compared with the preceding two decades, generally lower rates or inflation, difficulties in many countries in adapting to structural changes, a mounting stock of debt, high real interest rates, high and increasing levels of protection, commodity prices depressed to their lowest level in 50 years, terms-of-trade losses sustained by commodity exporting countries, and a generally insecure economic environment in which million of people still lack the basic conditions for a decent life.
2. In this difficult global economic situation, there has been a diversity of socio-economic experiences. Developed market-economy countries have succeeded in curbing inflation and in maintaining steady, though slow, growth, but unemployment levels are still high and external payments imbalances remain excessive in some of these countries. On account of their dominant share in world trade, the impact of their slow growth has been transmitted to other countries which had toreckon with it as a significant factor in policy formulation. Growth has slowed also in countries of Eastern Europe.
3. Most developing countries had to retrench; they have been unable to consolidate and build upon the economic and social progress which they had achieved during the two preceding decades. In the 1980s, the average per capita income of the developing countries as a whole fell further behind that of the developed countries. Indeed, per capita incomes declined in most countries in Latin America and in sub-Saharan Africa. Nevertheless, a number of more industrialized economies of East Asia, and the larger Asian low-income economics, have continued to grow.
Примечание. UNCTAD - United Nations Conference on Trade and Development - Конференция ООН по торговле и развитию, ЮНКТ АД.
II. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. What were the main tendencies in the world economy in the 1980s?
2. What did developed market economy countries succeed in?
3. Who had the dominant share in world trade?
4. Did the average per capita income of the developing countries fall further behind that of the developed countries?
5. What was the situation like in more industrialized economies of East Asia?
III. Найдите в тексте слово demand и уточните его значение.
IV. Вместо пропусков вставьте подходящее слово.
1. The external... of many rate developing countries is level growing incomes.
2. The ... of developing debt countries in world trade is share still not very great.
3. The ... of inflation must be curbed.
4. Unemployment... is still high in many developed countries.
5. Per capita ... have declined in many countries.
V. Найдите однокоренные слова для следующих слов: basis, employment, industry, to pay, to formulate.