Kant reduced the activity of the state to legal support of individual freedom. In this philosopher he believed that the task of public authorities does not include concern for the happiness of citizens (such a policy is characteristic of despotic states, where rulers want to "in its concepts to make people happy"). How and. Kant argued his point of view? Do you agree with this statement, or disagree, and why? Argues his point of view, give examples.
Hegel considered the civil society and the state as divergent spheres of public life, they emphasized that "the development of civil society is later than the development of the state." What is the apparent originality of the concept of Hegel? What influenced his concept for the development of political and legal thought? What point of view on the relationship of civil society and the state, there are now?
1 By order of Alexander gifted thinker and statesman MM Speransky I prepared a number of projects to improve the state system of the Russian Empire. Speransky proposed reforms were to significantly change the social and political system in Russia. What was the essence of the proposed reforms? What is the significance of these ideas have had or could have for Russia? Survives ideas Speransky its importance for modern Russia? Argues his point of view, give examples.
The theory of legal positivism was based on the assumption that the state is legal. At the same time, the issue of human rights was rejected legal positivism, together with the theory of natural law, and the people in the law and the rule of law was recognized as a "natural person", endowed with "subjective rights", inferred from the texts of laws, and not of the nature of man himself . What are these ideas were at the time? What is the significance they have today? Do you agree with this statement or disagree, and why? Argues his point of view, give examples.
Professor of the Moscow University BNTchitcherin recognized property necessary manifestation of freedom. In a number of works, especially in the book "Property and the State", he challenged the theory of Socialists on the transfer of the entire production and distribution in the hands of the state, "the worst host, you can think of." By Tchitcherin formal equality (equality before the law) is the demand for freedom and material equality (equality of states) contradicts freedom. What arguments conducted BN Chicherin in favor of his theory? Do you agree with this statement or disagree, and why? Argues his point of view, give examples.
The theorist of law and state GF Shershenevich believed that the state is the source of law. According to his concept of the state is the primary phenomenon, and the right - the secondary, because the state precedes the law and historically and logically. On this basis, he criticized the idea of \u200b\u200bthe legal coherence of the state which he himself creates rules. The theory of the rule of law, according to him, has no theoretical basis and practical value. What are the arguments cited by GF Shershenevich in favor of his theory? Do you agree with this theory or disagree, and why? What is this theory has now? Explain your answer, please give examples.
Jean Sorel and other theorists anarcho-syndicalism sharply criticized the state of democracy and parliamentarism. Sorel argued that democracy tends to equate all "citizens" so that workers want to be like the bourgeois. As a result of the mixing of classes is imposed mediocrity, cut off the road to a new and higher culture, which should and can create only the proletariat. Democracy is just like the politicians, whom she brings to power, gives the opportunity to use them and their friends all the benefits delivered by the state. Do you agree