I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Помните, что объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты чаще всего соответствуют придаточным предложениям (см. образец выполнения 1).
1. Now we know neutrino to have a rest mass (масса покоя) of about 30 electron-volts.
2. The properties of the new material are known to be determined next month.
3. Conduction is known to be a process by which heat is transmitted through a substance by molecular activity.
4. All the changes of temperature and changes of state to be discussed are shown in Fig. 2.
II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого (самостоятельного) причастных оборотов (см. образец выполнения 2).
1. Working with machines and sharp tools one must always be careful.
2. The stream of electrons moving along the conductor is called electric current.
3. Powerful nuclear ice-breakers being built in our country, we started a new era in the history of Arctic exploration.
III. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык следующие сложные предложения. Обратите внимание на то, как переводятся условные предложения (см. образец 3).
1. Had they met with such difficulties before, they would have known what to do.
2. If the quality of the equipment were higher, the results of the experiment would be more accurate.
3. It would be impossible to explain chemical phenomena without using the laws of physics.
IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 1, 2, 3 и 4-й абзацы.
1. Where did the needle, that small piece of steel, which is so indispensable to modern life, come from? What great mind conceived this small, inconspicuous article? No one really knows it, but we do know the needle to be one of the oldest implements used by man.
2. The Chinese are believed to have been the first to use needles of steel. Garments richly enhanced with embroidery, belonging to the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans who lived in the far distant past, have been unearthed by the archeologists. These works of art must have been made with the help of something resembling our needle of today. Needles made of iron have been discovered in the ruins of the ancient Egypt and Rome. However, the manufacture of needles on a large scale did not begin until the sixteenth century. Since that time various improvements have been made on this indispensable gadget.
3. As far as our small friend the pin is concerned, it seems to appear as early as the age of the Neolithic Man. As time went on, man turned to the animals and fish and found their bones of use as pins. Wood has also been known to have aided men and women in piecing materials together. Metal pins dating back to the days of early Egypt and Rome have been unearthed by the archeologists.
4. Bronze pins were used during the Bronze Age. The ruins of Pompeii have yielded some excellent samples. Safety-pin, or what might have resembled it, is supposed by some historians and explorers to have been in use about 1000 B.C. as an ornament. During the fourteenth century the popularity of the pins among people was likely to have stimulated their manufacture and it became one of the leading industries.
V Прочитайте 4-й абзац текста и ответьте письменно на следующий вопрос:
What was likely to stimulate the manufacture of the pins?