English, version 2 (CRIMINAL LAW)

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Option 2

I. Turn suggestions on the Russian language, paying attention to the function of the pronoun "it".

1. It is not surprising that this company took part in a number of legal actions.

2. Avoiding litigation (or using it when it can be beneficial) should become an important part of any business´s strategic plans.

3. This system is flexible and Acts of Parliament can alter it.

4. Everybody knows that it was the aim of the opposition party at the last elections.

5. It is desirable to choose a lawyer who is an expert in civil cases.


II. Put the following sentences in the interrogative and negative form and translate them into Russian.

1. There are some special benches for the Government and the Opposition in the House of Lords.

2. Somebody must be present as a witness when you sign your will.

3. Today´s newspapers published something important about the changes in the judicial system of the USA.


III. Identify the function of the verb "to be" and "to have" and translate into Russian proposal.

1. A contract usually contains many clauses about what kinds of goods are to be supplied; who is to pay for transport; what prices are to be paid.

2. His claim for damages will be invalid.

3. The doctrine of precedent is a central feature of modern Common Law systems.

4. The government is considering various proposals, but there are arguments for and against the division.

5. He has to ground his complaint if he wants to have a compensation.

6. In recent times lawyers have made efforts to make their profession less mysterious.


IV. Turn suggestions on the Russian language, paying attention to the degrees of comparison of adjectives and adverbs.

1. The party that wins the greatest number of seats in Parliament takes power.

2. District councils provide services that cover a smaller area, where local control is more important.

3. Some modern legislation is as precise and comprehensive as a code in the Continental system.

4. Solicitors are not so remote as barristers are.

5. The more experienced a lawyer is in the United States, the greater salary he has.


V. Put the verbs in parentheses in the appropriate time and place the supply in the Russian language.

1. The leader of the majority party in the House of Commons usually (to become) Prime Minister.

2. The modern political system of Great Britain (to begin) over 200 years ago.

3. The Labour party (to have) strong links with trade unions since the date of its foundation.

4. You can not see the investigator now, he (to discuss) the case with the judge.

5. The students (to know) the results of the examination next week.

6. The two countries signed the treaty after the war (to finish).


VI. Turn suggestions on the English language, paying attention to the modal verbs.

1. Lawyers can work in various public institutions.

2. Members of the House of Commons should consider and discuss all the bills.

3. Witnesses have to testify during the trial.

4. What can you tell us about the legal system in the UK tomorrow exam?

5. No one should interfere in the internal affairs of that State.


VII. Read the text, write and translate into Russian on a proposal to:

a) a noun in the function definition;

b) a noun in the possessive case;

c) structure "there + be".

CRIMINAL LAW

1. The courts of criminal jurisdiction include: the magistrates´ courts, which try the less serious offences and conduct preliminary inquires into the more serious offences; Crown Courts which try such cases as: homicide, violence against the person (excluding homicide), sexual offences, burglary, robbery, theft and handling stolen goods, fraud and forgery, criminal damage and other offences.

Additional information

2. Magistrates´ courts deal with about 98% of criminal cases in England and Wales, and conduct preliminary investigations into more serious offences. Every district has a magistrates´ court. The Crown courts, situated in a number of towns and cities, take all criminal work above the level of magistrates´ courts and trials are held before a jury.

3. Magistrates´ courts hear and determine charges against people accused of "summary offences", that is those that can be legally disposed of by magistrates sitting without a jury. Magistrates, or Justices of the Peace, as they are also called (JPs for short), are advised on points of law and procedure by a clerk to the justices or an assistant who is legally qualified and is also in charge of the court´s administrative arrangements . Most magistrates have little training in law, though they are obliged to attend some appropriate courses. They receive no payment for their work.

4. Magistrates can only try people for minor offences and can not usually give prison sentences totalling more than six months. If after hearing all the evidence they decide that the crime is a serious one, they must send the accused for trial to a higher court - the Crown Court.

5. A person convicted by a magistrates´ court may appeal to the Crown Court against the sentence or conviction. When the appeal is on a point of law, either the prosecutor or the defendant may appeal from the magistrates´ court to the High Court, which sits in London and in some regional centers. Appeals from the Crown Court, either against conviction or against sentence, are usually made to the Court of Criminal Appeal. The court may annul the conviction, or it may reduce the sentence. The highest court of appeal is the House of Lords.

6. In inner London and in some other large urban areas where work is heavy and continuous, there are also professional "stipendiary" magistrates who are full-time, salaried and legally qualified. There are only about forty stipendiary magistrates in England, and a few in Wales.

7. In most places, however, the magistrates are Justices of the Peace, who have been appointed by the Lord Chancellor on the advice of special advisory committees, of which there is one for each county. They are usually people who hold prominent positions in their locality, and many of them are drawn from the upper classes. Some steps have been taken recently to choose the new justices from wider social backgrounds.

8. Magistrates´ courts are sometimes called "courts of summary jurisdiction" or "petty sessions" of "police courts". When a court sits it must have at least two justices on it, and not more than seven. The justices take turns at attending court sessions.

9. The office of magistrates dates back to the year 1360, when they were designed to be a kind of policemen, whose duty was to search out and arrest offenders, as well as to give evidence against them at their trials. In the course of time they acquired such a wide range of duties that by the middle of the nineteenth century they were almost entirely responsible for the government of counties. However, towards the end of the nineteenth century the establishment of other administrative authorities, in particular County Councils in 1888, relieved the county magistrates of their governmental responsibilities, leaving them judicial functions.


VIII. Rewrite and translate the writing on Russian paragraphs 3, 4, 6.7 and 8.


IX. Give your answer to the question:

What was the duty of the magistrate´s office originally?

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