Текст № 1
(для студентов технических специальностей)
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1. Computers can deal with different kinds of problems but they must be given the right instructions. Instructions are written in one of the high-level languages, for example, FORTRAN, COBOL, ALGOL, PASCAL, BASIC, or C. But a program written in one of these languages should be interpreted into machine code. Usually when one instruction written in a high-level language is transformed into machine code, it results in several instructions. A brief description of some high-level languages are given below.
2. FORTRAN is acronym for FORmula TRANslation. This language is used for solving scientific and mathematical problems. It consists of algebraic formulae and English phrases.
3. COBOL is acronym for COmmon Business-Oriented Languages. This language is used for commercial purposes, COBOL deals with the problems that do not involve a lot of mathematical calculations.
4. ALGOL is acronym for ALGOrithmic Language. It is used for mathematical and scientific purposes.
5. BASIC is acronym for Beginner´s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. It is used by students who require a simple language to begin programming.
6. С is developed to support the UNIX operating system, С is a general-purpose language.
7. When a program is designed to do a specific type of work it is called an application program.
Задания по грамматике
1. Переведите на русский язык:
the University founded by Lomonosov; the proposal sup¬ported by many delegations; the programme of complete disarmament proposed by the Soviet Union; the question connected with the fight for peace; the idea of peaceful co-existence recognized by many countries; the historic decree known to everybody; a settlement reached through negotia¬tions; the foreign policy based on full equality and mutual respect; the programme adopted by the congress.
a broken glass – … a raised hand – … a drawn picture – … a well-known writer – … well-done work – … a badly-made – … закрытая дверь – … оставленная тетрадь – … разбитая тарелка – …
хорошо одетая девушка – … найденная ручка –… прочитанная книга – …
3. Образуйте Participle I и Participle II от следующих глаголов и переведите их:
to cut, to begin, to open, to play, to write, to give, to read, to grow, to print, to point, to break, to explain
4. Зачеркните лишнее:
1. The girl (playing / played) in the garden is my sister.
2. My younger brother doesn’t like to put away toys (scattering / scattered) all over the floor.
3. Leaves (lying / lain) on the ground always remind us about September.
4. I’ll show you animals (drawing / drawn) by my brother.
5. Show me the pupils (learning / learned) English.
6. The child (sleeping / slept) on the sofa is my grandson.
7. Have you got any (cutting / cut) bread.
8. The man (sitting / sat) at the open window is looking at the children (playing / played) in the yard.
5. Переведите следующие предложения на русский язык и определите, каким членом предложения является герундий:
1. We think of going to the Crimea next summer.
2. Every¬body was surprised at seeing him there.
3. She was ac¬cused of telling a lie.
4. I am afraid of catching cold.
5. There was little hope of getting tickets for this match.
6. In win¬ter you will have a chance of skiing and skating.
7. Swim¬ming in such weather, is very pleasant.
8. It´s no use [ju:s] (бесполезно) hurrying to the cinema. It is already late.
9. This book is not worth (не стоит) reading.
10. I am used to getting up early.
11. When will you finish reading this book?
12. Do you mind my opening the window?
13. Before leav¬ing for Moscow I shall ring you up.
14. On coming home he began doing his home-work.
15. After saying this she left the room.
16. The students can improve (улучшить) their pronunciation by reading aloud.