English in the field of jurisprudence. Option 2

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Task 1. Define grammar tense form in the following sentences.
1. In the seventh century BC the Greeks began to put their laws into writing.
2. The laws of many European countries were developing on the basis of Roman law.
3. In the first year you will study Roman law as it is the basis on the laws of most European countries.
4. The Napoleon Code has influenced the laws of many countries in America.
5. The institute of jury still exists in many countries. By the eleventh century many European countries had begun to use Roman law in their courts.
6. Common law was developing gradually throughout the history.
7. Continental systems of law have resulted from the attempts of governments to produce a set of codes.
8. The lawmakers wanted to show that legal rules of their citizens originated in the state, not in local custom.

Task 2. Translate into Russian and underline modal verbs and their equivalents.
1. A broad democratic alliance must be built.
2. The sitting is to take place in 10 Downing Street.
3. They should participate in the movement aiming to bring about fundamental change.
4. Liberals could not prevent the establishment of the Labour party.
5. Each constituency is able to elect only one member to Parliament.
6. It was his day off, so he did not have to be at work, but he had to do a lot at home.

Task 3. Translate into Russian paying attention to modal verbs.
1. He could read English books after he had studied the language for a year.
2. You may come here at any time.
3. They need not go there tomorrow.
4. I'll have to get off at the next stop to do some shopping.
5. We will be able to go on an excursion the day after tomorrow.
6. I am thinking hard, trying to find a solution of the situation. There must be a way out.
7. May I have another cup of coffee?
8. The train is to arrive at 9 sharp.

Task 4. Translate into English.
1. You had to stay home yesterday, as the weather was bad?
2. You can take any book, what you want.
3. Should I bring this book tomorrow? - No, I do not.
4. It should be sure to show this letter to your parents.
5. When he came to London, he was able to negotiate without an interpreter.
6. They could not discuss the matter yesterday. They will have to do it tomorrow.

Task 5. Transfer sentences from active to passive voice.
1. The porter will bring your luggage to your room.
2. You may leave your hat and coat in the cloak-room downstairs.
3. From the station we will take them straight to the hotel.
4. At the station a man from the travel bureau will meet her.
5. She will meet us in the hall upstairs.
6. Has the secretary typed the letters? - No, she is typing them now.

Task 6. Transfer sentences from passive to active voice.
1. The laws are interpreted by the courts.
2. The lawmakers were influenced by the model of the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church.
3. Laws had been put into writing by Greeks be the 16th century DC
4. In a civil case a verdict was given by a jury.
5. Do not worry. Speeches are being prepared by professional speech-writers.
6. The law of the world has been influenced by Roman law.

Task 7. Change the following sentences into indirect speech.
1. She asked me, "What are the two main types of sources of law?"
2. "Do customs still create new laws?", They asked the professor.
3. I suggested, "Let's have a short break and drink coffee."
4. I asked him, "What conditions must customs satisfy?"
5. We asked, "Which body has more power: Parliament or the Government?"
6. "In what courts does a solicitor have the right to speak?" They asked him.
7. She said to him, "Do not touch these documents."
8. He said, "How can I get to the Court?"
9. His chief asked, "Who has read all materials connected with this matter?"
10. &qu

Additional information

Task 8. Underline the infinitive in the following sentences and translate them into Russian.
1. To grant pardon is the prerogative of the Crown.
2. They must have been arrested over a year ago.
3. The victim is the first person to be interviewed.
4. He seems to be investigating a criminal case.
5. A student must pass a group of examinations to obtain a law degree.
6. The aim of the preliminary investigation is to draw up an indictment.
7. To be instructed by such a good specialist was a great advantage.
8. Which is more pleasant: to give presents or to be given presents?

Task 9. Translate sentences with the constructions of non-finite forms of the verb into Russian.
1. The lower chamber having passed the bill, it went to the upper chamber.
2. For any state to become a member of the United Nations it is necessary to accept the obligations under its Chapter.
3. They want the execution of the sentenced to be postponed.
4. Nobody expected her to testify against her brother.
5. The Queen's Counsels are expected to appear only in the most important cases.
6. He was reported to be preparing an account of the indictment.
Task 10. Match the English and Russian equivalents.
1. Crimes mala prohibita (lat.) A. occasional criminal
2. Felony b. misdemeanor, misdemeanor, forensic
punishable offense (category Least
dangerous crimes bordering
administrative offenses)
3. Infamous crime c. organized crime
4. Misdemeanour d. "White collar crime"
(Criminal machinations, the perfect employee
or a person holding a high
social status)
5. Organized crime e. statutory offense
6. Quasi crimes f. infamous crime
7. Statutory crime g. quasi-crime (as if)
8. White-collar crime h. a felony (serious category
the crimes, the degree of danger,
located between treason
and misdemeanor)
9. Accidental criminal i. acts of crime in the force of the prohibition
law
10. Accused criminal j. criminal, accused of committing
the crime

Task 11. Open the brackets using the correct form of the verb.
1. Before he (to enter) the institute, he (to work) at a plant.
2. We (to walk) for about two hours when at last we saw the lake.
3. You (to read) that book yet? - No, I only just (to begin).
4. They are busy now. They (to discuss) an important matter. They (to discuss) it for three
hours.
5. The train could not stop because it (to travel) too fast at the time.
6. When the delegation (to arrive) in Moscow? - It (to arrive) yesterday.
7. Tomorrow at 10 am we (to receive) French businessmen.
8. Hardly he (to open) the suitcase, when he (to find) the tie which he (to think) he (to lose)
long before.


Task 12. Translate into English.
1. Yesterday I bought a watch, because have lost their old.
2. We have known each other since I came to this city.
3. It will be dinner after unpack their belongings.
4. When I came to office, Secretary of just typing a letter, which I had given her the day before.

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