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I. Перепишите предложения. Укажите, в каких синтаксических функциях употребляется герундий. Переведите на русский язык.
1. There is no fear of losing much time.
2. He left the office without informing us of it.
3. In spite of being busy he did all he could.
4. He insists on being sent the documents to the customers.
II. Перепишите предложения. Подчеркните причастие. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные формы причастия.
1. Moreover, there are devices used by criminals to decide whether a stolen card* can be used again or if it is hot*.
2. Whenever a country imports or exports goods and services, there is a resulting flow of funds: money returns to the exporting nation and money flows out of the importing nation.
3. The department demands an increased bonus.
4. Big companies have many managers heading departments.
* card – кредитная карта
hot – зд.: зафиксирована в базе данных украденных кредитных карт
III. Перепишите предложения. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на сослагательное наклонение.
1. It’s time that they came to some conclusion.
2. He looked as if he had already decided on some action.
3. I wish our financial standing were all right so that we could establish a business.
4. He wished they had exported the equipment abroad, as it could give them substantial profit.
IV. Перепишите предложения. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные типы условных предложений.
1. If I had had time yesterday I should have written a letter of complaint to our partners.
2. If our manager didn’t discuss it with the ship-owners, we should suffer some losses through this delay.
3. We’ll buy new computers if we don’t go over the budget.
4. He would be promoted faster if he were more skilled.
V. Прочитайте текст. Переведите письменно на русский язык. Ответьте письменно на вопросы:
1. How do people try to protect themselves against inflation?
2. In what way does the Treasury finance public expenditures?
3. How can public authority stop inflation?
The End of Inflation
A steady, uninterrupted price rise will eventually snowball out of control. Shrewd observers discover early that it pays to buy in advance and pay later. They sell their bonds and all other assets with a fixed dollar value and instead buy common stocks and real estate. Every round of higher prices increases the number of people who try to protect themselves against inflation in the same way. They buy stocks which are no longer cheap. Eventually most everyone is trying to do the same thing, only to discover that business transactions require both buyers and sellers for the same merchandise. The Treasury finds it difficult to sell new bonds to the public; they finance public expenditures by raising the money supply even more and thus help to increase the inflationary trend.
Inflation has run its course when people start buying goods they do not want, solely for the purpose of getting rid of money in order to protect themselves against its loss of value. The monetary unit is no longer a usable means of exchange, and the economy must start all over again. This is the logical end of hyperinflation.
Public authority can stop this collapse much earlier through its control of government spending and the money supply. People can demand such action because they know that inflation is not an act of God and can be avoided by taking the appropriate steps at the right time.