1. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, принимая во внимание, что инфинитив в функции определения и особенно Complex Object и Complex Subject часто соответствуют придаточным предложениям:
1. There is no time to be lost with the delivery. 2. The manufacturers expected their goods to be in great demand. 3. Basic human needs seem to be very simple, but individual wants may be very complex. 4. New brands were reported to have been sold well. 5. We believe our people to restore the level of economic development during the shortest time period. 6. Labour power is man’s ability to work. 7. Though abolished in America slavery did not disappear.
2. Перепишите и письменно переведите данные ниже предложения, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастного оборотов:
1. Launching your own business you should have initial capital. 2. New business having been launched, they worked day and night. 3. A new Board of Directors was formed, with R. Brown being in charge of finance. 4. The contract having been signed, the partners shook hands. 5. In many underdeveloped countries people suffer most from the rising cost of living. 6. An economy manufacturing products for exchange is called a commodity economy. 7. The total sum of money received over a certain period (a year) is called the country’s national income.
3. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, учитывая разные возможности перевода герундия на русский язык:
1. They regretted having lost the cargo. 2. People buy essentials even if this means spending all their money. 3. Britain’s industry was protected by prohibiting the colonies from producing certain goods. 4. In primitive times people lived for centuries without exploiting each other. 5. Anarchy in production prevails in a society of individual commodity producers as they all work without planning their production.
4. Перепишите и письменно переведите данные предложения, содержащие условные придаточные предложения:
1. If the exchange rate changes the parties will renegotiate the price. 2. If the exchange rate changed the price would be renegotiated. 3. If the demand had risen they would have produced more of that commodity. 4. Had there been a license the tax police would not have closed your business.
5. Прочтите текст и устно переведите 1-й абзац. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й я 3-й абзацы.
In most economic systems, the prices of the majority of goods and services do not change over short periods of time. In some systems it is of course possible for an individual to bargain over prices, because they are not fixed in advance. In general terms, however, the individual cannot change the prices of the commodities he wants. When planning his expenditures, he must therefore accept these fixed prices. He must also pay this same fixed price no matter how many units he buys. A consumer will go on buying bananas for as long as he continues to be satisfied. If he buys more, he shows that his satisfaction is still greater than his dislike of loosing money. With each successive purchase, however, his satisfaction compensates less for the loss of money.
A point in time comes when the financial sacrifice is greater than the satisfaction of eating bananas. The consumer will therefore stop buying bananas at the current price. The bananas are undercharged: they are no better or worse than before. Their marginal utility to the consumer has, however, changed. If the price had been higher, he might have bought fewer bananas; if the price had been lower, he might have bought more.
It is clear from this argument that the nature of a commodity remains the same, but its utility changes. This change indicates that a special relationship exists between goods and services and a consumer and his money. The consumer´s desire for a commodity tends to diminish as he buys more units of that commodity. This is the Law of Diminishing Marginal Utility.