I. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст:
The Desirability of Economic Growth
Growth is an important objective of economic policy because it is the key to higher standards of living. It is economical growth which has made it possible for millions of people to escape from the miseries of long hours of a back breaking toil, deplorable living conditions, a low expectancy of life and other features of low income societies. Furthermore, people have come to expect economic growth- we expect our children to have a better life (in the material sense) than we have had.
From the government´s point of view economic growth is desirable be-cause it brings in increasing revenues from a given structure of tax rates. It means that more and better schools, hospitals, and other social services can be provided without resorting to the politically unpopular measure of raising the rates of taxation. Economic growth also makes it easier (politically) to carry out policies of income distribution which favor the less well off. If real income per head is increasing, a more than proportionate share of the increment can be located to lower income groups and a less than proportionate share to the higher income groups. No one need be worse off.
Of great importance is the cumulative nature of economic growth. We must use compound interest calculations to work out the longer term effects of particular growth rates. For example, a country which maintenance a growth rate of 3 per cent annum will achieve a doubling of real income in 24 years. It is this aspect of growth which explains why relatively small differences in national growth rates can, in a matter of 10 or 15 years, lead to large absolute differences in living standards. It also explains why the differences in real income between a rich country and a poor country can widen even when they are both experiencing the same rate of growth a 3 per cent increase on pound m. is a much greater increase in absolute terms than 3 per cent on 1000 pounds.
II. Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов:
Attain, desire, revenue, widen, merely, steadily, obvious, fast, affluent, damage, relate, deplorable, furthermore, rapid harm, connect, poor, rich, be-sides, wish, income, increase, only, constantly, achieve, evident.
III. Найдите антонимы среди следующих слов:
Opponent, growth, better, easy, less, wide, supporter, decline, worse, difficult, more, narrow.
IV. Переведите следующие сочетания слов на английский язык:
Удвоение реальных доходов, относительно небольшая разница, изнурительный труд, соответствующие изменения, не прибегая к непопулярным мерам,
Показатель повышения уровня жизни, ведущая цель экономической политики, обоснованное сравнение.
V. Заполните пропуски предлогами:
1. Much depends ... the type ... the investment being undertaken.
2. Increasing the amount... the capital per worker is known as "capital depending: and this process should lead ... increasing labour productivity.
3. The lack ... these facilities provides a serious barrier ... more rapid economic progress ... the developing countries.
VI. Задайте к тексту 10 предложений различного типа.
VII. The Infinitive. Переведите на английский язык предложения:
1. The purpose of each business process is to offer each customer the right product or service.
2. At the last moment they decided not to continue with the negotiations.
3. To enter this market requires a lot of hard work.
4. It is important to carry out these changes as quickly as possible.
5. The employers agreed to accept the terms of the pay deal.
6. The equipment to be installed will need more monitoring.