1-Й ВАРИАНТ КОНТРОЛЬНОГО ЗАДАНИЯ №2
I. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения, обращая внимание на функции инфинитива.
1) We must make special efforts for owners of small shops to participate in summer selling.
2) He knows economics well enough to help you in planning.
3) The more progressive method of marketing to be used will largely increase the profits.
II. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык предложения. Обратите внимание на перевод оборота “for + существительное (местоимение) + инфинитив”, инфинитивных конструкций “сложное подлежащее” и “сложное дополнение”.
1) For this small store to survive it must attract customers more actively.
2) The economists are supposed to calculate all possibilities of the rapid transportation of goods.
3) These trust companies are known to offer loans for development of new businesses.
4) They want you to buy agricultural products on the farms of their region.
III. Перепишите предложения и письменно переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод зависимого и независимого причастных оборотов.
1) Reducing our imports, we decrease the exports of others.
2) All the data needed having been collected, the bookkeeper began calculating the sum of all the debit and .credit balances.
3) Monetary policy affects prices, the aggregate level of output and employment being independent of it.
IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие условные предложения.
1) The demand for the goods will be higher if advertising campaign is organized properly.
2) If one of the partners left the business, it would be difficult to determine his share in it.
3) Provided the owner hasn’t got enough money to pay all the debts, all the owner’s personal assets including home and car can be sold.
4) Unless an activity is specifically prohibited by law, no line of business is closed to an owner.
V. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст.
Theory of Supply
The theory of supply is the theory of how much output firms choose to produce. The principal assumption of the supply theory is that the producer will maintain the level of output at which he maximizes his profit.
Profit can be defined in terms of revenue and costs. Revenue is what the firm earns by selling goods or services in a given period such as a year. Costs are the expenses which are necessary for producing and selling goods or services during the period. Profit is the revenue from selling the output minus the costs of inputs used.
Costs should include opportunity costs of all resources used in production. Opportunity cost of a commodity is the amount an input can obtain in its best alternative use (best use elsewhere). In particular costs include the owner’s time and effort in running a business. Costs also include the opportunity cost of financial capital used in the firm.
Aiming to get higher profits, firms produce each output level as cheaply as possible. Firms choose the optimal output level to receive highest profits. This decision can be described in terms of marginal cost and marginal revenue.
Marginal cost is the increase in total cost when one additional unit of output is produced.
Marginal revenue is the corresponding change in total revenue from selling one more unit of output.
As the individual firm has to be a price-taker, each firm’s marginal revenue is the prevailing market price. Profits are the highest at the output level at which marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue, that is to the market price of the output. If profits are negative at this output level, the firm should close down.
An increase in marginal cost reduces output. A rise in marginal revenue increases output. The optimal quantity also depends on the output prices as well as on the input costs. Of course, the optimal supply quantity is affected by such noneconomic factors as technology, environment, etc.