1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них тип условного предложения и переведите на русский язык:
1. If the president employs an assistant his new employee provides labour in return for payment. 2. If the new employee had received the surplus from the whole business, he himself would have received his wage. 3. If we talked about the "national labour force", we would mention all those people who are available for work within the nation. 4. If you fire your bookkeeper, you’ll have many difficulties in finding another one of the same qualification. 5. If it is hard work, you should be paid properly.
2. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, содержащие причастия, герундий и инфинитив или конструкции с ними:
1. Any person engaged in private business is known to be paid a fixed sum of money. 2. Everyone believes economy to be a rather difficult science. 3. We consider money to be a means of measuring the value of men’s labour. 4. Human labour is supposed to produce both goods and services. 5. The activities of a farm worker and a nurse being very different, the payment received by the two should be different too. 6. The work having been finished in time, all the salesgirls got their salaries. 7. Many economists believe the wages to be the price of labour. 8. The report will be discussed at the conference to open in Moscow soon. 9. Known as simple commodity production, this sort of economy is based on private ownership. 10. Saving means not spending income on consumption. Simply leaving money in a current account or in a jar on the mantelpiece, as long as it represents non-spending of current income, is saving.
3. Перепишите и переведите ни русский язык предложения, содержащие усилительные (эмфатические) конструкции:
1. And he did maintain himself though he was very young. 2. It is labour that creates the use-value (потребительская стоимость) of a commodity. 3. It is under simple commodity production when the owner of commodities sells his goods to purchase others. 4. It is the worker’s ability to create surplus value that the employers are most interested in. 5. It is oil that is becoming too expensive for generating electrical power; therefore the percentage of energy obtained from coal does increase.
4. Выпишите из текста 5(A) предложения, в которых глагол-сказуемое употреблен в страдательном залоге, и переведите их на русский язык.
5. Из 10 строк текста 5(C) выпишите все сказуемые и укажите их видо-временные формы (время, залог).
6. Прочтите й устно переведите 1-й и 2-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 3-й абзац.
THE OPEN MARKET
In addition to being a means of exchange, money is also a means of measuring the value of men’s labour. Labour, in economic theory, is any work undertaken in return for a fixed payment. A mother may work very hard for her children, but she receives no fixed wages for her work. It is not therefore labour in the strict economic sense. Economists are interested in measuring the services; which people render to each other. They arc not concerned with such services, which people provide for nothing. In economics, money is the standard by which the value of things is judged.
Human labour produces both goods and services. The activities of a farm worker and a nurse are very different, but each is measurable in terms of payment received
If however a farmer is self-employed and does not receive a fixed wage from anyone else, he is in a different category from the nurse and from his own firm workers. His activities are not wholly labour. His workers receive their wages, but he receives whatever surplus (large or small) emerges from his farming. This surplus, like any surplus in industry or commerce; is what we usually call profit.