Task 1. Define grammar tense form in the following sentences.
1. In the seventh century B.C. the Greeks began to put their laws into writing.
2. The laws of many European countries were developing on the basis of Roman law.
3. In the first year you will study Roman law as it is the basis on the laws of most European countries.
4. The Napoleon Code has influenced the laws of many countries in America.
5. The institute of jury still exists in many countries. By the eleventh century many European countries had begun to use Roman law in their courts.
6. Common law was developing gradually throughout the history.
7. Continental systems of law have resulted from the attempts of governments to produce a set of codes.
8. The lawmakers wanted to show that legal rules of their citizens originated in the state, not in local custom.
Task 2. Translate into Russian and underline modal verbs and their equivalents.
1. A broad democratic alliance must be built.
2. The sitting is to take place in 10 Downing Street.
3. They should participate in the movement aiming to bring about fundamental change.
4. Liberals couldn’t prevent the establishment of the Labour party.
5. Each constituency is able to elect only one member to Parliament.
6. It was his day off, so he didn’t have to be at work, but he had to do a lot at home.
Task 3. Translate into Russian paying attention to modal verbs.
1. He could read English books after he had studied the language for a year.
2. You may come here at any time.
3. They needn’t go there tomorrow.
4. I’ll have to get off at the next stop to do some shopping.
5. We will be able to go on an excursion the day after tomorrow.
6. I am thinking hard, trying to find a solution of the situation. There must be a way out.
7. May I have another cup of coffee?
8. The train is to arrive at 9 sharp.
Task 4. Translate into English.
1. Тебе пришлось остаться дома вчера, т.к. была плохая погода?
2. Вы можете взять любую книгу, какую хотите.
3. Должна ли я принести эту книгу завтра? – Нет, не надо.
4. Ей следует обязательно показать это письмо своим родителям.
5. Когда он приехал в Лондон, он мог вести переговоры без переводчика.
6. Они не смогли обсудить этот вопрос вчера. Им придется сделать это завтра.
Task 5. Transfer sentences from active to passive voice.
1. The porter will bring your luggage to your room.
2. You may leave your hat and coat in the cloak-room downstairs.
3. From the station we will take them straight to the hotel.
4. At the station a man from the travel bureau will meet her.
5. She will meet us in the hall upstairs.
6. Has the secretary typed the letters? – No, she is typing them now.
Task 6. Transfer sentences from passive to active voice.
1. The laws are interpreted by the courts.
2. The lawmakers were influenced by the model of the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church.
3. Laws had been put into writing by Greeks be the 16th century D.C.
4. In a civil case a verdict was given by a jury.
5. Don’t worry. Speeches are being prepared by professional speech-writers.
6. The law of the world has been influenced by Roman law.
Task 7. Change the following sentences into indirect speech.
1. She asked me, “What are the two main types of sources of law?”
2. “Do customs still create new laws?”, they asked the professor.
3. I suggested, “Let’s have a short break and drink coffee.”
4. I asked him, “What conditions must customs satisfy?”
5. We asked, “Which body has more power: Parliament or the Government?”
6. “In what courts does a solicitor have the right to speak?” they asked him.
7. She said to him, “Don’t touch these documents.”
8. He said, “How can I get to the Court?”
9. His chief asked, “Who has read all materials connected with this matter?”
10. “Please, can you do it not so loud, Kate,” said Johnny to her.