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Английский язык в профессиональной сфере

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Задание 1. Прочитайте тексты. Вставьте слова по смыслу. Переведите тексты на русский язык.
Introduction to the law of contract.
Agreement, breach, capacity, consideration, damages, fraud, illegal, obligation, oral, performance, property, signed, terms.
What is a contract?
It is an agreement that creates a binding (1….) upon the parties. The essentials of a contract are as follows: mutual (2…..); a legal (3……), which in most instances need not be financial; parties who have legal (4……) to make a contract; absence of (5…….) or duress; and a subject matter that is not (6…….) or against public policy.
What form does a contract take?
In general, contracts may be either (7……..) or written. Certain types of contracts, however, in order to be enforceable, must be written and (8……..). These include contracts involving the sale and transfer of (9………).
How does a contract end?
In case of a (10………) of contract, the injured party may go to court to sue for financial compensation (or (11………) ), or for rescission, for injunction, or for specific performance if financial compensation would not compensate for the breach. Specific (12…….) of a contract is the right by one contracting party to have the other contracting party perform the contract according to the precise (13…….) agreed.

Задание 2. Подберите определения к данным терминам. Переведите на русский язык.
Types of legal contracts.
Consultancy agreement; distribution agreement; franchise agreement; loan agreement; manufacturing licence agreement; terms and conditions of sale agreement; contract of employment; directors’ service agreement; shareholders’ agreement.
-This agreement is used to ensure the repayment of money borrowed, usually in monthly installments.
-This agreement is used where one party buys goods from the manufacturer and re-sells them on his own account. He will, however, be given the right to use the manufacture’s intellectual property rights.
-This agreement sets out the terms and conditions on which a business supplies goods.
-This agreement is used where one party grants to another the right to run a business in the name of the first party. Examples include Body Shop and McDonalds.
-This is the equivalent of a contract of employment for directors.
-This agreement is used where one party is providing services as an independent advisor to a company.
-This agreement should be used where one party (the Licensor) owns intellectual property rights in respect of a product it has developed and wishes to license the manufacture of the product to a third party.
-This is intended to govern the relationship between a number of shareholders in a company. The agreement works as a second layer of protection preventing the company from being run in a manner other than has been agreed.
-This contract comes into existence as soon as a job offer is accepted whether that offer is oral or in writing.

Задание 3. Прочитайте текст. Переведите текст на русский язык.
Contracts made over the Internet and by e-mail.

Дополнительная информация

Задание 3. Прочитайте текст. Переведите текст на русский язык.
Contracts made over the Internet and by e-mail.
Increasingly, contracts are being made over the Internet. In particular, the Internet is being used to order goods and services from suppliers. The European Union is keen to promote the development of a European Internet industry. It has therefore passed the European Electronic Commerce Directive. The Directive lays down some specific formalities that will need to be followed in order to make binding contracts over the Internet. Thus, Article 10 imposes a general requirement on service providers to give a clear account, prior to the conclusion of the contract, of the steps which must be followed to complete the contract online, to ensure “full and informed consent”. This part of the Directive had been brought into force by the Electronic Commerce (EC Directive) Regulations 2002. Under these Regulations, companies must provide receipts for orders placed electronically without delay, allow customers to change an order easily before buying and provide information such as business e-mail addresses. Business which do not comply with the regulations have to pay statutory damages to customers or receiving a “stop now” order which will force them to change their procedures.
Article 9 of the Directive requires Member States to ensure that their legal systems allow contracts to be concluded by electronic means. There must be nothing in the law of the Member States to prevent or affect the validity of a contract concluded electronically just because it was so concluded.

Задание 4. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту.
1.What sort of commercial contracts are being made over the Internet?
2.What should service providers do in general to make sure buyers can give their “full and informed consent” before they enter into a contract?
3.What are the three specific requirements mentioned under the Electronic Commerce Regulations?
4.What is the effect of Article 9 of the European Electronic Commerce Directive?

Задание 5. Заполните таблицу, подобрав однокоренные слова.
to require
to claim
to agree
to conclude


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