1. Прочитайте и переведите текст (письменно)
What is law?
The English word law refers to limits upon various forms of behavior. Some laws are descriptive: they simply describe how people, or even natural phenomena, usually – behave. An example is the rather consistent law of gravity; another is the less consistent laws of economics. Oilier laws are prescriptive – they prescribe how people ought to behave, for example, the speed limits imposed upon drivers that prescribe how fast we should drive. They rarely describe how fast we actually do drive, of course.
In all societies, relations between people are regulated by prescriptive laws. Some of them are customs – that is, informal rules of social and moral behavior. Some are rules we accept if we belong to particular social institutions, such as religious, educational and cultural groups. And some are precise laws made by nations and enforced against all citizens within their power.
Customs need not to be made by governments, and they need not be written down. We learn how we are expected to behave in society through the instruction of family and teachers, the advice of friends, and our experiences in dealing with strangers. Sometimes, we can break these rules without suffering any penalty. But if we continually break the rules, or break a very important one, other members of society may ridicule us, act violently toward us or refuse to have anything to do with us. The ways, in which people talk, eat and drink, work and relax together are usually called customs.
2. Выберите правильный вариант для ответа.
1. What is the main function of law?
a) to protect our life
b) to protect our property
c) to protect our reputation
2. What restricts speed limits?
a) police instructions
b) prescriptive laws
c) driver’s conscience
3. What threatens a person who continually breaks the rules?
a) a strict penalty
b) severe criticism and isolation
4. What should we do in the absence of law?
a) we should be happy
b) we should rely on our friends
c) we should rely on the law of the jungle
5. What law can be characterized as a perfect one?
a) there can’t be perfect laws
b) the law which protects private property
c) the law which preserves life
3. Прочитайте текст ещё раз и выберите правильное утверждение
1) Government usually establishes customs.
2) Some laws prescribe how people ought to talk, eat, work and relax.
3) No matter how generous and kind people may be they need laws.
4) There cannot be perfect laws.
5) The law enables us to go out in daylight without fear of being robbed, kidnapped or murdered.
4. Спишите, подчеркните сказуемое и переведите следующие предложения
1. They may face these tasks in future.
2. May I have a look at the statement?
3. Can I read English?
4. She cannot speak French.
5. You should speak to the lecturer.
6. They must keep public order.
5. Раскройте скобки, выбрав нужный вариант
1. How would you (punish/ punishment) somebody for stealing?
2. The support the idea of capital punishment (abolish/ abolition) in their country.
3. I don’t believe that the death penalty deters from (commit/ committing) violent crimes.
4. The criminal was sentenced to one year’s (imprisonment/ imprison).
5. Some countries don’t carry out (executions/ execute).