I. Прочтите текст и письменно ответьте на вопросы, следующие за ним.
1. Prices of nearly all goods and services have moved in recent history. Inflation is the process of rising prices or, what is the same thing - a fell in the value of money. Each of us is becoming adjusted to inflation.
2. At the beginning a rising price level may not be considered dangerous. It improves the climate for investment, reduces payments of the National Debt
3. The problem, however, is that when the rise in prices starts, it is difficult to stop it. Gradually the rate of inflation increases, it may lead to hyperinflation.
4. Inflation reduces the standard of living of persons dependent on fixed incomes, as pensioners. But on the other hand it is easier to pay debts. Not all the prices are rising. Even during rather rapid inflation some prices may be constant and others even fell.
5. Inflation may occur for many different reasons. Traditionally changes in the price, level have been explained by an excess of total demand. The essence of this kind of inflation may be expressed in the phrase "too much money chasing too few goods".
6. In this case we see long queues of shoppers to make purchases. Stocks of goods available are less than the quantity of goods that the consumers are willing to buy. Besides, there are some black markets in which people buy things at prices much higher than they should be.
7. There are other factors causing inflation. There were some periods in our recent economic history when the price level rose despite low demand. Sometimes the cost of goods rises and this results in the rise of prices, or inflation. In this case the cost makes the price level higher.
8. Inflation can create serious difficulties for a country dependent on international trade, as Britain has discovered over the past thirty years. When the level of internal prices rises in comparison with prices of foreign traders, imports increase. Moreover, exports are discouraged.
Thus, it is important that the control of inflation should be given priority in government policy.
1. What is inflation?
2. Does inflation mean that all prices are necessarily rising?
3. What are the reasons for inflation?
4. How does inflation influence the country dependent on international trade?
II. Письменно переведите 1, 4, 6, 7-й абзацы текста.
III. Употребите глаголы в нужной видо-временной форме.
1. Inflation (to increase) steadily this year.
2. She (to be) with the company since it began.
3. Traditionally, changes in the price level (to explain) by an excess of total demand.
4. We (to study) the effect of the rise in the dollar´s value at the moment.
1. Considerable efforts (to make) now to solve economical problems.
IV. Выпишите из 4 и 7-го абзацев предложения с глаголами в страдательном залоге. Определите видо-временную форму глаголов.
V. Преобразуйте предложения из страдательного залога в действительный.
1. Inflation is considered as a fact of economic instability.
2. Rise of prices was caused by the cost rise.
3. All the resources are already employed.
4. The reasons for inflation have been explained.
5. Inflation was caused by the excess of demand.
VI. Подчеркните инфинитив, определив его форму и функцию.
1. Supply of goods is not enough to meet the demand requirements.
2. One of the best ways to know the problem is to examine it from different points of view.
3. To decrease prices you should reduce the cost of the product.
4. The aim of macroeconomics is to study the economy in general.
VII. Выпишите из текста слова с суффиксом –ing. Определите, какой частью речи они являются.
VIII. Преобразуйте предложения, употребляя причастия определения или обстоятельства.
1. As they reduced the cost of the product, they managed to decrease the price of it.
2. Inflation is a general level of prices which rise.