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Англ (Computers, The History of Land Transport)

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Контрольная работа №2
Текст 1
Computers
Прочитайте и переведите текст на русский язык с 1-го по 4-й абзацы. Письменно переведите 1-й и 3-й абзацы.
1. When Charles Babbage, a professor of mathematics at Cambridge University, invented the first calculating machine in 1812 he could hardly have imagined the situation in which we find ourselves today.
2. Nearly everything that we do in the modern world is helped, or even controlled by computers, the complicated descendants of his simple machine. Computers are being used more and more extensively in the world today, for the simple reason that they are far more efficient than human beings.
3. They have much better memories and can store huge amounts of information and they can do calculations in a fraction of the time taken by a human mathematician. No man alive can do 500,000 sums in one second, but an advanced computer can.
4. In fact, computers can do many of the things we do, but faster and better. They can pay wages, reserve seats on planes, control machines in factories, work out tomorrow’s weather, and even play chess, write poetry, or compose music.

Лексико-грамматические упражнения
1. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на сказуемое в Passive Voice.
1. Most of the time of a modern man is spent within the walls of some buildings.
2. The experiments were still being conducted in some laboratories when the new term began.
3. Moving pictures can be sent by television.
4. The monument was restored in spite of many difficulties.
5. The research work was carried out under great difficulties.
6. He was listened to with great attention.
7. The lectures on mathematics were attended by all the students.
8. Her children will be taken care of.
9. Rivers and lakes are covered with ice in winter in Siberia.
10. Tomsk was founded in 1604 year.

1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выделенные слова.
1. In big ports ships are loaded and unloaded by means of cranes.
2. Franklin is known all over the world both as a scientist and as a political leader.
3. As soon as you finish your calculations, we shall begin the test.

3. Выберите предложение с Gerund и переведите его на русский язык.
1. Noise is an ever growing inconvenience of modern life.
2. Different ways of sending messages over long distances have been known for thousands of years.
3. The new materials recommended for bridge construction were described in the article.
4. People living in Japan have some customs different from ours.

4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на Infinitive.
1. The problem to be discussed is connected with the city water supply.
2. To extend the main street they had to destroy some old buildings.
3. We expect you to show good results.
4. The results of the test were found to be very interesting.
5. The owner of the motor car wanted the old engine to be replaced.
6. To translate this text students used the dictionary.
7. We were invited to take part in the international scientific conference.

Text 2. The History of Land Transport
Прочитайте и устно переведите текст на русский язык с 1-го по 4-ый абзацы. Письменно переведите 2-ой и 3-й абзацы.
1. The world transport means to carry people or goods from place to place. It is also used for the vehicles that carry people or goods – for example, motor transport includes buses, lorries, and motor cars.
2. The history of transport is divided into two stages. The first stage is that in which all forms of transport depended directly on the power of men or animals or on natural forces such as winds and current. The second stage began with the development of the steam engine, which was followed by the electric motor and the internal combustion engine as the main sources of power for transport.
3. The most ancient people were probably wanderers.

Дополнительная информация

4. The next advance in land transport came with the invention of the wheel. The wheel at once led to the development of two-wheeled and four-wheeled waggons and carriages, but before these could be used for carrying goods over long distances, a system of roads was necessary. In Britain, and also over much Europe, the first long-distance paved roads were made by Romans. The roads made it possible to use wheeled traffic.
Пояснения к тексту.
1) internal combustion engine – двигатель внутреннего сгорания
2) wanderers – кочевники
3) to live in settled homes – вести оседлый образ жизни
4) paved roads – мощенные дороги

Лексико-грамматические упражнения
1. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на сказуемое в Passive Voice.
1. The history of transport is divided into two stages.
2. Buildings of the 19th century are characterized by the use of new materials.
3. In those days the greater part of the Earth was covered with forest.
4. The light has just changed from green to red.
5. A new research is being carried out successfully.
6. The text was translated from Russian to English.
7. Many things that we do in the modern world is helped or even controlled by computers.

2. Переведите предложения, обращая внимание на выделенные слова.
1. The strength of this material is as great as strength of steel.
2. The chief engineer is either at the office or at the laboratory.
3. According to the information received by us the exhibition will open on May, 10.

3. Выберите предложение с Participle I и переведите его на русский язык.
1. The Egyptian art of building was very beautiful.
2. The method of paying for new roads and bridges is still used especially in the United States.
3. The channel linking the two seas is being built now.

4. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на Infinitive.
1. This method is not good enough to be used everywhere.
2. The lecture was said to be very interesting.
3. Goods to be transported to the North are stored at the railway station.
4. The English delegation is believed to come at the end of the month.
5. The 20th century is considered to be the century of space travels.
6. To drive a car in a big city is very difficult.
7. He suggested to help us in cooking the dinner.
8. They were glad to take part in the exhibition.
9. Sputniks do not need any additional energy to move along their orbits.

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