The Political System of the USA
1. Under the Constitution, the federal government is divided into three branches, each chosen in a different manner, each able to check and balance the other.
2. The Executive Branch is headed by the President, who together with the Vice President, is chosen in nationwide elections every four years. The President proposes bills to Congress, enforces federal laws, serves as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and with the approval of the Senate makes treaties and appoints federal judges, ambassadors and other members of the executive departments (the Department of State, Defense, Commerce, Justice, etc.)
3. The Vice President, elected from the same political party as the President, acts as chairman of the Senate, and in the event of the death or disability of the President, assumes the Presidency for the balance of his term.
4. The Legislative Branch is made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The 435 seats in the House of Representatives are allocated on the basis of population, although every state has at least two members of the 100-member Senate; a Senator´s term of office is six years. Both houses must approve a bill for becoming a law, but the President may veto or refuse to sign it. If so, Congress reconsiders the bill. If two-thirds of the members of both houses then approve it, the bill becomes law even without the President´s signature.
5. The Judicial Branch is made up of the Federal Courts (at least one in every state), 11 Federal Courts of Appeals and, at the top, the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate; to minimize political influences, their appointments are for life. Federal courts decide cases involving federal law, conflicts between citizens of different states. An American who feels he has been convicted under an unjust law may appeal his case all the way to the Supreme Court, which may rule that the law is unconstitutional. The law then becomes void.
6. In order to amend the Constitution, Congress must pass the proposed amendment by two-thirds majority vote in each house, and three-fourth of the states must concur. In more than 195 years, the Constitution has been amended 26 times. The first 10 Amendments – the Bill of Rights – guarantee individual liberties: freedom of speech, religion and assembly, the right to the fair trail, the security of one´s home. Later amendments chronicle America´s struggling for equality and justice for all its people.
7.2. Найдите и выпишите из текста 2 предложения, содержащие инфинитив. Определите формы и функции инфинитива. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
7.3. Найдите и выпишите из текста 2 предложения, содержащие причастие. Определите формы и функции причастия. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
7.4. Найдите и выпишите из текста 2 предложения, содержащие герундий. Определите формы и функции герундия. Переведите предложения на русский язык.