Прочитайте текст "Advertising and Persuasion",соблюдая правила интонационного оформления текcта.
ADVERTISING and PERSUASION
As consumers we are confronted by advertisements just about every day оf our life. Lots of people pretend that they never read adverts, but this claim may be seriously doubted. It is hardly possible these days not to read advertisements: in virtually every newspaper or magazine there are special sections or columns through which nearly anything can be accomplished: you can find a job, buy or sell goods or services, book a trip.
Whatever its measurable effects, advertising clearly matters to advertisers, since huge sums are spent on advertising budgets and spending has trebled over the last decade. Most important consideration in preparing advertisements is effectiveness — achieving the purpose. This primary function is, of course, to sell goods and services. But we get the wrong idea if we think the only purpose of advertisement is to sell goods. Other equally important functions are to create awareness, to bring into light specific information, to get action and to affect attitude.
Advertisements can be classified into two broad categories: informative and persuasive. Typically an advert contains the elements of both. When a product is first launched, sales are low because very few customers are aware that it exists. The role of advertising here may be to inform the public of the product’s existence and its particular uses. The same applies when a product has been modified or improved. In other cases, e.g. new cars or scientific calculators, the nature of the product may be such that a large amount of technical information has to be supplied, and advertising again may have to be informative. A great amount of knowledge we have about household goods derives largely from the advertisements we read. If you want to buy a washing machine, you are more likely to obtain details regarding performance, price, etc. from an advert. Advertising that informs and educates consumers gives them greater choice in their selection of goods and services. It can be seen as a form of competition between firms and may encourage manufactures to improve their products for the benefit of the consumer.
Persuasive advertising, as its name implies, is used to try and persuade a consumer to buy a particular product. Such advertising is subjective and contains many statements of opinion rather than fact. Persuasive advertising has been criticized because it emphasizes the advantages of a product and attempts to make those who do not use the product feel as if they were missing out. It plays on jealousy, envy and other feelings. It is normally very difficult to distinguish between the persuasive and informative elements in any advertisement. There is generally a blend of both.
Advertisements do not lie, at least, not in an obvious way. But they do offer a highly selective form of truth-telling. Since advertising uses powerful images to promote products, it also incidentally promotes «lifestyles». These images and lifestyles are created mainly by telling stories with human interest. Stories usually demand imaginative work from audiences, so we need to focus our attention on how they work. Advertising stories are not just series of events in time. They involve structures of cause and effect. This means that they also have values. Advertisements for items like cars and computers speak of status, style and success more than the actual features of the products. The kind of values portrayed and the way they are presented are important factors in creating ideologies which envelop the products. This is most often done by the creation of a mythical world which is offered as a superior form of existence. The purchase of the product becomes the key to entering this mythical world. So advertising has effects beyond stimulating the need to buy. In order to create such lifestyl ....