Контрольная работа № 1
1. Examine the following words. Take them into consideration, reading the text below.
2. Read and translate the text:
THE MAIN CONCEPTS OF BUSINESS
A company is also called a firm or a business. While it is producing goods or trading, it is said to be in business. A firm which is just starting up is going into business and a company which stops operating goes out of business. If a company gets bigger, it expands. The expansion of a firm means it can produce more goods or sell more of its products. A manufacturer (or manufacturing company) produces goods. The goods it makes are its products. When a manufacturing company expands, it usually increases production. If one year it produces 110 tones, it has increased production by 10%.
A company which sells goods in large quantities (in bulk) is called a wholesale distributor (or wholesaler). A company or person buying goods in bulk (or wholesale) and selling them in small quantities is a retailer. Most local shops are retailers and sell goods retail.
Two or more companies which sell or manufacture the same products are competitors (or rivals). They are in competition and they compete for customers. In order to sell more goods than its rivals, a company must be competitive. It is important to keep ahead of the competition by selling at competitive prices. If a company has an advantage over its competitors (for example a cheaper or better products) it gives them an edge on the market.
An area where there is a demand for certain goods is called a market. A company which markets (sells) goods locally caters for the local market. Goods sold in the same country as they are produced are sold on the domestic (or home). A company which starts selling goods overseas is said to go into exporting (or to go into the export business). An importer buys goods abroad and imports them into his own country. The goods are then called imports and the process of importing is called importation.
3. Answer the questions:
1. Does the term “company” have the same meaning as the words “firm” and “business”?
2. What do they say about the company if it is producing goods or trading?
3. What does it mean to go into business?
4. Explain the expression “to go out of business”?
5. What does a company do if it gets bigger?
6. What does the expansion of a firm mean?
7. What company produces goods?
8. What units of measurement define the expansion of a manufacturing company?
9. What company is called a wholesaler?
10. Who can sell goods retail?
11. What companies may be called competitors?
12. Why must a company be competitive?
13. What kinds of advantages may a company have over its competitors?
14. What is a market?
15. What’s the difference between the domestic market and exporting? What does an importer do?