1. Прочтите и переведите следующие группы слов
the most striking feature
hundreds of separate operations
the reasons for the improved performance
some particular aptitude
a marked decline in the degree of craftsmanship
especially liable to unemployment
a low-cost method of production
2. Найдите синонимы среди следующих слов
waste, train, construct, complete, split, require, perform, constant, full, need, carry out, divide, permanent, lose, teach, build
3. Прочтите и переведите текст
The Division of Labour
By far the most striking feature of production in a developed country is the fact that the worker almost never makes a complete product. Labour is divided in the sense that the production process is split into a very large number of individual operations and each operation is the special task of one worker. The principle of the division of labour is now carried to remarkable lengths and the production of relatively simple things may be broken down into hundreds of separate operations.
Adam Smith, writing in the latter part of the eighteenth century, provided what has now become the most celebrated account of specialization. On a visit to a factory engaged in making pins he observed: “One man draws out the wire, another straightens it, a third cuts it, a fourth points it, a fifth grinds the top to receive the head; to make the head requires two or three distinct operations; to put it on is a peculiar business; to whiten it is another; it is even a trade in itself to put them into paper. The important business of making pins is, in this manner, divided into about 18 distinct operations”.
He estimated that production per day in this factory was about 5000 pins per person employed. If the whole operation had been carried out from start to finish by each employee, Smith estimated that he would have been able to make only a few dozens each day.
Advantages of the division of labour
Why should specialization lead to such great increases in productivity? Smith followed up his description by an analysis which attempted to discover the reasons for the improved performance.
1. A person who spends his or her time performing one relatively simple task becomes extremely proficient at that particular operation. Constant repetition leads to great dexterity, or, as most people would say, “practice makes perfect”.
2. No time is wasted in moving from one job to another. The necessity of moving from station to station, putting down one set of tools and picking up another is eliminated.
3. There is a saving of time in the training of operatives. A man or woman can be trained very quickly for the performance of a single operation.
4. There is a saving of skill. Specialization means that many different occupations are created, each one of which calls for some particular aptitude. It is possible, therefore, for each worker to specialize in the job for which he or she is best suited.
5. One of the most important advantages of the division of labour is that makes possible a much greater use of machinery. When a complex process has been broken down into a series of separate, simple processes it is possible to devise machinery to carry out each individual operation. It would be extremely difficult, for example, to construct a machine which would carry out the whole business of making a chair, but once this has been reduced to series of separate operations, it becomes possible to use electric saws, planning machines, power-driven lathes, etc.