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Контрольная по английскому в1(энергетический факультет)

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Загружен: 07.05.2015
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КОНТРОЛЬНАЯ РАБОТА №2

1. Прочитайте текст и письменно ответьте по-английски на вопросы, следующие за текстом.
2. Найдите в тексте и переведите на русский язык предложения, в которых употреблены модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты.
3. Найдите в тексте и переведите на русский язык предложения, в которых употреблены неопределенные местоимения some, any, no, every и их производные.
4. Выпишите из текста 5 глаголов и образуйте от них причастия настоящего и прошедшего времени; переведите их на русский язык.
5. Найдите в тексте и переведите на русский язык предложения, в которых употреблено причастие настоящего времени.
6. Найдите в тексте и переведите на русский язык предложения, в которых употреблено причастие прошедшего времени.
7. Поставьте глагол-сказуемое одного предложения из текста во все временные формы группы Perfect, произведя все необходимые смысловые изменения.

Образец: He has just translated the text.
He had translated the text before the bell rang.
He will have translated the text by tomorrow.
8. Найдите в тексте и переведите на русский язык предложения, сказуемые которых употреблены в страдательном залоге.
9. Переведите письменно выделенный текст контрольной работы №2 на русский язык. При переводе пользуйтесь англо-русским словарем.

ВАРИАНТ №1

AGRICULTURE IN RUSSIA

Russia comprises roughly three-quarters of the territory of the former Soviet Union but has relatively little area suited for agriculture because of its arid climate and inconsistent rainfall. Northern areas concentrate mainly on livestock, and the southern parts and western Siberia produce grain. Restructuring of former state farms has been an extremely slow process. The new land code passed by the Duma in 2002 should speed restructuring and attract new domestic investment to Russian agriculture. Private farms and garden plots of individuals account for over one-half of all agricultural production. The Agriculture in Russia is struggling to rebuild as it transforms itself from a command economy to a more market-oriented system.
Following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991, large collective and state farms – the backbone of Soviet agriculture – had to contend with the sudden loss of state-guaranteed marketing and supply channels and with a changing legal environment that created pressure for reorganization and restructuring. In less than ten years, livestock inventories declined by one-half, pulling down demand for feed grains, and the area planted to grains dropped by 25%. The use of mineral fertilizer and other purchased inputs plummeted, driving yields down. Most farms could no longer afford to purchase new machinery and other capital investments. After nearly ten years of decline, Russian agriculture has begun to show signs of modest improvement. The transition to a more market-oriented system has introduced an element of fiscal responsibility, which has resulted in increased efficiency as farmers try to maintain productivity while adjusting to resource constraints. The farming structure has changed and the relatively small family farms that have emerged and grown stronger in the new market environment are now producing in aggregate value more than the total output of large corporate farms that succeeded the traditional collectives.
The share of Russia´s agriculture in GDP has remained below 6% since 2000, much lower than the average for the other countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (17% on average for the 12 CIS countries). The share of agricultural employment is relatively high at 16% of the total number of employed, but this is also substantially lower than in other CIS countries (around 40% on average). Russia is thus much less agrarian by both measures than other former Soviet republics. The disproportion between the share of agriculture in GDP and its share in employment suggests that the productivity of labor in Russia´s agriculture is below the average in the economy.

Дополнительная информация

Questions:
1. Why is the territory of Russia not suitable for agriculture?
2. When did the Duma pass the new code?
3. What was the backbone of Soviet agriculture?
4. Why did the area planted to grains drop by 25%?
5. What has the transition to a more market-oriented system introduced?
доп.чтение
Энергетический факультет

ВАРИАНТ № 1

THERMOSTAT SELECTION

Thermostat Selection. In addition to consideration of types, initial cost, type of enclosure, and usage, several other factors are important when ordering a thermostat. The desired temperature range and the allowable variations in temperature must be specified. The range of a thermostat must include the temperature for which it is to be used and the temperature variation should be consistent with the application. Usually the thermostat allowing variations of 5° is satisfactory. A 5° variation (differential) means that the thermostat would operate 2.5 above the temperature setting and would operate again 21/2° below the setting. (Set at 85° F, contacts open at 87.5° and close at 82.5°.) Closer control is available if desired.
A second important factor is the switch contacts. The ampere rating of the contacts, the type of contact material (silver is best), whether single- or double-pole, and single-or double-throw, must all be specified when placing an order. The decision relative to these items is made after considering certain operating characteristics of the controlled appliance, such as surge current, normal current, input voltage (230 volts double-pole contacts), and the need for operating auxiliary equipment with the same thermostat.
Time Switch. A time switch1 is an electric clock that automatically operates switch contacts at definite time intervals. The general-purpose time switch is designed automatically to close the switch contacts two times and open them two times during any 24-hr period. By adjusting the trip levers the timer can be set to provide only one on and one off operation during the 24-hr period. Various appliances can be controlled by the contacts of the switch. The clock motor is connected to the source of power independent of the switch contacts so that the clock runs continuously, but the appliance is on only when the switch contacts are closed.
On the farm, time switches are used more for poultry-house lighting than for any other application. In addition, they are frequently used for controlling home-yard lighting, automatic feeders, greenhouse lighting, cooling systems, hay curing, grain drying, and heating systems.
Two models of time switches along with typical wiring diagrams are shown in Fig. 15. For simplicity single wires are used in the wiring diagrams. One of the diagrams illustrates the use of a d i m circuit which provides a 15- or 20-min period of dim lights before all lights are extinguished. The actual dimming is not incorporated in the switch but must be provided by connecting an external resistance into the dimming circuit or by placing a low value of lamp wattage on this circuit. Double-pole switch2 contacts are available for the 230-volt-circuit application such as a three-wire poultry-house wiring system and for single appliances requiring large wattages.
The automatic operation is performed by metal trip levers or riders3 which are fastened4 to the rotating dial5 and trip the switch mechanism as they pass by. The riders can be removed or adjusted in position in order to regulate the timing intervals. Clocks performing two on — off opera-lions in 24 hr require four riders. If more on — off operations are desired, additional riders are necessary. However, there is a practical limit to the number of switching operations possible with a single timer. The actual switching is a mechanical feature and the dial must rotate some distance (and therefore some time elapses) before one rider can trip the switch contacts and move past, thereby allowing the next rider to function.

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