1. Перепишите следующие предложения, определите в каждом из них тип условного предложения и переведите на русский язык:
1. If it is a free market, the competition takes place among sellers of the same commodity.
2. If you fired this bookkeeper, you would be very sorry.
3. If you had put services into effect quickly, you would not have failed.
4. If you start your own business you need capital.
5. If we examine the monetary history of Greece and Rome, we’ll find a very complex manipulation of standards and currency.
2. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, содержащие конструкции с причастиями, герундием и инфинитивом.
1. This kind of business seemed to be successful.
2. The Island of Britain is known to have been related to the Roman world by Julius Caesar in the year 55 BC.
3. The manager made his employees start productive work.
4. We consider such a risk to have been justified.
5. In the American economic system the type and quality of goods produced are determined largely through the interaction of supply and demand.
6. With the sphere of culture still remaining profitable, the aim of the «cultural» capitalist is to cut down the cost of production to a minimum.
7. Selling commodities on foreign market entrepreneurs are able to expand production and thereby to increase profit.
8. The amount of money to be paid included the cost of packing.
9. The planning process requires a large bureaucracy with the resulting problem of securing administrative efficiency faced by any large organization.
10. The government can influence the money supply by buying and selling ita own securities.
3. Перепишите и переведите на русский язык предложения, содержащие усилительные (эмфатические) конструкции:
1. Workers do restore the physical strength because they have all the vital necessities needed.
2. It is abstract labour that forms the value of a commodity.
3. It is only the value of the workers’ labour that they are paid for.
4. It is under private ownership of the production means when the law of value results in the emergence of capitalist relations.
5. I believe he does know the subject well.
4. Выпишите из текста 5(В) предложения, в которых глагол сказуемое употреблён в страдательном залоге, и переведите их на русский язык.
5. Из 10 строк текста 5(А) выпишите все сказуемые и укажите их видо-временные формы (время, залог).
6. Прочтите и устно переведите 1й и 2й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 3й абзац.
THE OPEN MARKET
Capital invested in business is simply the accumulation of previous surpluses on previous business activities. In this way the past is used to finance the future. The accumulation of capital is almost always deliberate, either on the part of individual citizens or on the part of the state. Even in non-capitalistic societies a certain part of the surplus achieved in any enterprise is «ploughed back» into the system in order to promote further growth.
When capital, labour and enterprise combine to make a new business successful, the business must still continue to compete on the market with other companies producing the same type of commodity. The term market, as used by economists, is a logical extension from the idea of a place set aside for buying and selling. In the past, part of a town was kept as a marketplace, and country people would come in on market-days to buy and sell. Markets today need not however to be located in any fixed place: the sugar market and the cotton market are not geographical locations, but simply sets of conditions which permit buyers and sellers to work together....