Английский, вариант 5 (Alloys)

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Вариант № 5
I. Определите в следующих предложениях форму и функцию герундия; переведите предложении на русский язык.
1. There are several ways of handling this difficulty. 2. This is a new device for measuring blood pressure. 3. A discussion on solving this problem was under way. 4. They started working. 5. In the next chapter the actual procedures for reducing the errors as far as possible are discussed. 6. The transfer to a slide for microscopic reading requires careful handling. 7. They were busy packing.

II. Определите функцию и форму причастия и предложении: предложении переведите:
1. Yesterday on television they watched the cosmonauts working in the open outer space.
2. When the chief engineer returned to his room he found me making Ike drawing of the new disks for the separator.
3. People watched the plane circling over the town.
4. The device designed by the group of engineers meets all the requirements. 5. The metric system used in CIS differed from a non-metric system used in the USA.
6. The achieved speed was 130 km p.h.

III. Определите форму н функцию инфинитива в предложении; предложения переведите:
1. The transmission of energy by wave motion is considered to be one of the most important phenomena in nature.
2. The engineers consider plastics to be the most important group of materials.
3. This machine part is supposed to be made of plastics.
4. Television is said to have great advantages and disadvantages.
5 This machinery is supposed to be installed here next month.
6. About a century ago people supposed weightless substance to pass from a hotter body to a colder one.

IV. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая во внимание, что инфинитив в функции определении, и особенно объектный и субъектный инфинитивные обороты, большей частью соответствуют придаточным предложениям:
1. We want our buildings tо be not only comfortable but beautiful as well.
2. Lebedev was the first to organise production of synthetic rubber.
3. Plastics are known to resist high temperature very well.

V. Перепишите данные ниже предложения; переведите их, учитывая различия в переводе зависимого и независимого причастных оборотов:
1. There are different sources of energy, the sun being an unlimited source of all its forms.
2. The energy sources of the world decreasing, it is necessary to turn to atomic energy.
3. Having made many tests the engineer obtained a result of great significance.

VI. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения; подчеркните модальный глагол или его эквивалент.
1. Infrared waves can be stopped by glass.
2. Many possible solutions may be tried and tested before the final and correct solution is reached.
3. I had to wait for a bus for ages.
4. Our plane was to take off 15 minutes ago.
5. Shall we be able to skate there?

Дополнительная информация

The word alloy comes from a French word meaning “to combine”. When metals in a molten stale unite and make what seems to be a single substance, they are said to form an alloy. For example, brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. Most alloys are known to be made by melting the metals together but some are made by electro-chemical methods and a few by compressing the powdered metals together.
Men first learned about the simple metals like copper and tin. Then, perhaps after, a fire, they found that a different substance was formed if copper and tin were melted together. This substance, called bronze, was found to be more useful than either of the metals by themselves, for when two or more metals form an alloy the result is a substance which has different properties from those of the original metals.
In the homes of ancient people copper was used to make tools and weapons but it was too soft to be really suitable. It soon lost its sharp edge or bent if it struck something hard. The discovery of bronze gave a harder and more useful metal. Later iron was discovered and used instead of bronze.
When iron was obtained from the iron ore varying amounts of carbon were left in the metal produced. More recently in history it became possible to obtain iron with a definite amount of carbon in it. When this metal was made red-hot and cooled quickly by plunging it into cold water, it became very much harder than the original iron. This metal was called steel. Steel is not really an alloy, it is rather like one. We know the name of steel to be used now for any iron which contains from 0.1 to 1.7 % of carbon. After more study and experiment men discovered many effects of alloying different metals with steel. The results are called the alloy steels.

VIII. Ответьте на следующие вопросы:
1. What metals did men learn about first?
2. Where does the word “alloy” come from and what does it mean?
3. For what purpose were copper and tin used in the homes of ancient people?
4. Why wasn’t copper suitable for making tools and weapons?
5 Which is harder copper or bronze?
6. What metal was used Inter instead of bronze?
7. How was steel obtained?


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