Английский, вариант 4
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1. Прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопрос (письменно):
What is motor vehicle use responsible for?
2. Переведите письменно 2 абзац текста.
Advantages and disadvantages
1. In the United States the car is now used for about 98% of all urban transportation, 85% of all travel to and from work. In widely dispersed American cities like L-A, Detroit, Denver, Phoeuix and Houston, 88% to 94% of the people drive to and from work. The number of cars and trucks in the USA is growing twice as fast as the number of people. With only 48% of the word’s people, the US has 1/3 of the world’s 400 mil. cars. By contrast, China and India, with 37% the world’s people, have only 0,5% of its cars.
2. In America’s dispersed cities cars are not just a necessity, they are a way of life. The average distance each US motorist travels has doubled since 1960. No wonder British author J.B. Priestley remarked, «In America, the cars have become the people». Though we tend to deny it, riding in cars is one of the most dangerous things we do in our daily lives. Worldwide, сars and trucks kill an average of 320000 people, maim 500000 and injure 10 million a year. Half of the world’s people will be involved in an accident some time during their life. Each year the USA motor vehicle accident kill around 48,000 people and seriously injure at least 300000. These accident cost society about $ 60 billion annually in lost income and in insurance, administrative, and legal expenses.
3. By providing almost unlimited mobility, automobiles and highways have been a major factor in urban sprawl in the US and other countries with large livable land This dispersal of cities has made it increasingly difficult for subways, trolleys, and buses to be economically feasible alternatives to the private car.
4. In the US motor vehicles account for 63% of the country´s oil consumption (up from 50% in 1973) and produce at least 50% of the country’s air pollution, even though US emission standards are as strict as any in the world. Motor vehicle use is also responsible for water pollution from oil spills, gasoline spills, and the dumping of used engine oil. What do you think should be done?
G. Tyler Miller, J.R.
Задание 2. Прочитайте текст, используя слова из списка:
1. Many modern cars have steering columns which will collapse under the weight of the driver rather than impale him. Improvements have been made in windscreen materials. Both toughened glass and laminated «high penetration resistant» glass reduce the number and extent of disfiguring injures. The possibility of injury can also be reduced by replacing all sharp edges inside the car by rounded edges and padded surfaces.
2. The most effective way of reducing injures inside the car is to hold people firmly in their seats. Throughout the period of impact and deceleration. Various passive restraint systems have been developed. A few years ago it was thought that air bags would provide the answer. These would inflate on impact and pin the occupants of the car to their seats. Although many thousands of cars were equipped with air bags in the USA, opinion is turning against them. They are expensive and, it is alleged, cannot be relied upon to inflate on impact; especially if they have been in the car for several months.
3. The most acceptable way of holding people in their seats is by using ordinary seat belts. Expert opinion overwhelmingly believes that seat belts save lives and reduce the severity of injures.
4. Modem seat belts are comfortable and easy to use. It is compulsory to wear seat belts at least some of the time in all the EFC expect Britain and Italy. Everyone who drives a car сan contribute to road safety by taking care of their car maintenance and by driving with care. We can all improve our own chances of survival by always wearing a seat belt when we are in a car.
from «Moscow News»
2 . Укажите номера вопросов, на которые вы найдете ответы в тексте. Ответьте письменно на вопросы:
1. Can the possibility of injury be reduced by replacing all sharp edges inside the car?
2. What improvements have been made in windscreen materials?
3. What are the most effective ways of reducing injures inside the car?
4. Why were many thousands of cars equipped with plastic bags?
5. Why is opinion turning against air bags?
6. What is the most acceptable way of holding people in their seats?
7. How can we all improve our chances of survival?
3. Прочитайте предложения, и расположите их согласно логике текста. Выполняйте письменно.
1. The most effective way of reducing injures inside the car is to hold people firmly m their seats.
2. Many thousands of cars were equipped with air bags.
3. Opinion is turning against air bags because they are expensive.
4. The possibility of injures can be reduced by improvements in windscreen materials and by replacing all sharp edges inside the car.
5. Various passive restraint systems have been developed.
6. We can contribute to road safety by taking care of the car maintenance and by driving with care.
7. Experts believe that seat belts save lives and reduce the severity of injures.
8. Modem seat belts are comfortable and easy to use.
4. Пользуясь информацией из текста, заполните следующую таблицу. Если в таблице есть неточности, внесите коррективы. Выполняйте письменно.
Chart I. Car safety
5. а) Прочитайте следующие предложения и укажите номера предложений, которые соответствуют содержанию текста.
b) Внесите коррективы и перепишите.
1. People can improve their chances of survival by wearing а seat belt when they are in a car.
2. Various passive restraint systems have been developed.
3. Improvements have been made in steering columns construction.
4. The possibility of injures can be reduced by improvements in windscreen materials.
5. Opinion is turning against air bags because they are not reliable throughout the period of impact and deceleration.
6. Experts believe that the most acceptable way of holding people in their seats is by using ordinary seat belts.
7. It is compulsory to wear seat belts in Russia, Britain and Italy.
6. Пользуясь следующими клише, составьте аннотацию к прочитанному тексту:
|1 мес||3 мес||12 мес|
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