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Английский, вариант 4 (UNDERGROUND RAILWAYS)

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Загружен: 15.12.2014
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ВАРИАНТ 4
I. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Continuous (Present, Past, Future) и группы Perfect (Present, Past, Future) в действительном и страдательном залогах. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы
1. The reason for the freight train derailment has not been found yet.
2. The station master said that no trains had arrived at the station during the night because of the heavy snowstorm in the mountains.
3. The program of railway reforms is being implemented now in Russia.
Under this program, suburban and regional passenger services will be financed from local budgets.

II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, поставив глагол в нужную форму.
1. When we (to come – Past Indefinite Active) to the railway station, all the tickets (to sell out – Past Perfect Passive) already.
2. Computers (to use – Present Continuous Passive) more and more extensively in the world today.
3. Train fare (to increase – Past Perfect Passive) several times during the past year.

III. Перепишите и переведите предложения, выбрав правильную форму сказуемого (Active or Passive).
1. The wooden supports for rails (call; are called) the sleepers.
2. The workers (were inspecting; is being inspected) carefully the carriages before the train departure.
3. One of Metro stations (will build; will be built) near my house.

IV. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление модальных глаголов. Подчеркните модальные глаголы в английских предложениях и в переводе.
1. If you are travelling by air, you must not carry anything in your luggage that can be used as a weapon.
2. The driver of the vehicle may be fined by the police officer if he/she violetes the traffic rules.
3. We could hardly start the engine at -30C.

V. Образуйте от данных глаголов две формы Participle I. Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык.
Model: to install - a) installing – устанавливающий, устанавливая
b) having installed – установив.
1) to begin; 2) to heat; 3) to improve; 4) to fall; 5) to meet; 6) to suggest;
7) to run; 8) to calculate; 9) to write; 10) to weigh; 11) to link;
12) to implement; 13) to grow; 14)to choose; 15) to design.

VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle I в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия I в английских предложениях и в переводе.
1. Trains arrivals and departures are announced by a loudspeaker, it is very convenient for people meeting somebody or seeing somebody off.
2. Metro, solving the problem of carrying a great number of passengers is a very important means of communication.
3. Driving a car in the rush hour, you must be very attentive because traffic is very heavy.

VII. Образуйте от глаголов данных в скобках, Participle II. Полученные причастия переведите на русский язык.
1) an engine (to invent) by R. Diesel; 2) the (to approve) plan; 3) a bag (to leave) in the bus; 4) (to receive) information; 5) a new supercomputer (to develop) by Japanese engineers; 6) (to burn) gas; 7) the (to insure) car; 8) (to increase) volume of traffic; 9) a (to force) landing; 10) a (to work out) project

VIII. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление Participle II в функциях определения и обстоятельства. Подчеркните причастия II в английских предложениях и в переводе.
1. In some European countries, tank cars made of reinforced plastic are used for conveyance of wine and fruit juices.
2. The things left behind the passengers are usually taken to the Lost Property office.
3. Many scientists invited to the conference took part in it with great pleasure.

IX. Перепишите и переведите текст.
UNDERGROUND RAILWAYS
The underground railway is the quickest, safest, most reliable and comfortable means of city’s transport.

Дополнительная информация

IX. Перепишите и переведите текст.
UNDERGROUND RAILWAYS
The underground railway is the quickest, safest, most reliable and comfortable means of city’s transport. Metro can solve the problems of carrying a great number of passengers in large cities as well as the problems of traffic jams, air contamination and noise.
However, from the technical point of view the underground railway system is very expensive and complicated constructional work. This system includes subsurface lines, ground based lines and elevated lines. Ground based lines are usually used at the terminations of the underground railways. Besides the underground and surface structures involve stations, tunnels, escalators, underpasses, ventilation and sanitary engineering as well as a power supply system.
The permanent way of underground railways differs from the usual railway track. The sleepers are only 0.9 m long. They are shorter than those of the railroad track which are 2.7 m long. The sleepers of the usual track are laid upon ballast made of broken stone or other materials. The crossties of the underground railway are laid directly on concrete base. It is more expensive but keeps air free from dust. If the ballast were made of slag, gravel, sand or even broken stone, the train would be followed by the dust clouds.
All Metro trains are powered by electricity. The current is obtained from the third rail. This contact rail is laid along the whole track and transmits the direct current of 825 volts to the train electromotor through the pantograph.
The Underground carrying capacity depends on the number of coaches, which ranges from 2 to 8 per train and the frequency of train running which ranges from 80 seconds to 8 minutes.
Nowadays there are underground railways in 80 cities all over the world. The first Metro railways lines were constructed in London in 1863. It is the oldest but not the longest Underground. New York was the second city to build the subway. The first track was laid in 1868 and nowadays it is the longest Metro in the world. The shortest Metro line was constructed in Turkey. Its length is only 600 m but Istanbul is very proud of the metropolitan means of traffic.

X. Ответьте на общие вопросы в соответствии с содержанием текста.
1. Is the underground railway the quickest means of transport?
2. Can Metro solve the problem of carrying a great number of passengers in large cities?
3. Does the underground railway system include only subsurface lines?
4. Are the sleepers of the underground railway laid on concrete base?
5. Do the Metro trains always consist of 4 coaches?
6. Are there underground railways in 80 cities all over the world?
7. Was London the second city to build the Metro?
8. Did New York construct its Underground in 1963?
9. Do you know where the shortest railway line in the world is?
10. Have metro lines been already constructed in all large cities all over the world?

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